Scīr

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Scīr is dǣl þæs lande, an landdāl oþþe in eleland an underrīċes undertōdāl.

Stær[adihtan]

In Bretene ƿǣron þa forman scīra ȝefundenon on Ƿestseaxum. Hīe ƿǣron dālas þæs rīċes for lēodƿearde and for dōme, ǣlċ under ānum ealdormenn and in æfterȝēarum ānum scirȝerefan. Þā fram þǣm lande ādrifon Ƿestseaxna cyningas þa Dene þā ƿyrhtede hie scīra in eallum Englarīċe. Ēac in þǣm ȝēarum ārærde Mælcolm II Cyning scīra on Scottum æfter þǣre Engliscan bisene and æftercyning David I āsprēadede þis endebyrd.

Ƿillelm I cyning and his Frencisc hired brōhtedon to Englarīce þæt ƿord counte oþþe in Nīƿum Englisce county sƿā sƿā hīe namedon eorlas count.

In Irlande and on Ƿealum ƿǣron scīra ȝeūpāræred be Engliscum ȝesetnese, oþþæt þe oft folgedon hie ieldre eardum.

Mǣst þāra Bryttiscan scīrena nimaþ hiere naman æfter hierum hēafodburgum: sƿā ȝebisnunga Eoferƿīcscīr æfter Eoferƿīce, Oxnafordscīr after Oxnaforde, ac sume scīra nimaþ hiere naman fram ieldrum stedum, sƿā ȝebisnunga Defenascir, Cent and Fif þā ƿǣron rīċu in ȝēardagum.

Ēac ofersǣ land þæs Bryttiscan Cyneƿises and þā Ȝeānlǣht Rīcu American habbaþ scīra æfter þara Bryttiscan bisene.

In Europan and ellesum sind stedas þā meaht man namian scīra.

Scira in missenlicum landum[adihtan]

Land Gereorde Anfeald Mænigfeald Getæl
Australia Nīwe Englisc county and shire counties and shires
Canada Nīwe Englisc and Frencisc county/comté
Cecland Bæmisc kraj kraje 14
Estland Estisc maakond maakonnad 15
Finnland Finnisc and Sweonisc maakunta / landskap and lääni / län maakunnat / landskap and lääni / län 9 landskap, 6 län
Geanlæhte Cynerice Niwe Englisc shire oððe county shires oððe counties
Geanlæht Riciu American Niwe Englisc county counties 3,141
Horigtaland Horigtisc županija županije 20
Irland Cynewise Niwe Englisc and Irisc county / contae counties / contaethe 26[1]
Iapan Iapanisc 郡(gun) 郡(gun)
Lettland Lettisc rajons rajoni 26
Liberia Niwe Englisc county counties 15
Liþuania Liþuanisc apskritis apskritys 10
Niðerland Niðerlandisc graafschap graafschappen
Norþweg Norþwegisc fylke fylke/fylker 19
Polaland Polisc powiat powiaty 314 (+ 65 "scir ceastre")
Rumænia Rumænisc judeţ judeţe 41+1
Russland Russisc rayon (район) oððe okrug (округ) rayoni (районы) oððe okruga (округа) >1000
Suð Corea Coreisc 군(gun, 郡) 군(gun, 郡) 86[2]
Sweoland Swēonisc landskap and län landskap and län 25 landskap, 21 län"
Ungerland Ungerisc megye megyék 19/22/1

Australia[adihtan]

Þa ēastern riciu Australie, and dælas Westernes Australie and Suþaustralie sind bedæleden in scirum (under þæm naman counties).

Þa scira sind underbedæled in tunscipum in Niwum Suþum Wealum, Uictorie, Tasmanie and Cwenalande oððe hundredum in Suþaustralie. Þa counties nabbaþ ne gerecbrūnung and hie sind ungecnawen on mæst þæm Australiacynn.

In Australisce landbocunge sind counties þæt forma landgemet.

Scira for stowelican gerecþegnunga in Australie sind under þæm naman shires, ēac mid municipalities.

Canada[adihtan]

On Canade, sind tien underriciu bedæleden in scirum.

Canadiscan Census Dalas in 2001

In Ontarioe and Niwum Scotlande sind þas scira stowelicu gerecþegnung earda, ac in Nīwum Brunswice, Quebece and Eadweard Æþeling Iega sind hie nu landgemet.

Mæst scira habbað þærin municipalities, ac sume sind ane miclu ceaster. In norþerne Ontarioe and norþerne Quebece, sind þas landdālas boldgetalu (districts) ne scira. In landum mid manigum burgum in suþerne middle Ontarioe sind nīwe regional municipalities for stowelicre gerecþegnunga, ne scira.

Geānede Cynerice[adihtan]

Hēafodgewrits: Scīra þæs Geānedan Cynerīces, and [[]], and [[]], and [[]], and [[]]

Þæt Geānede Cynerīce is bedælede in twa and nigontig eardfæstum scirum.

For stowlicre gerecþegnunga hæfþ þæt Cynerice mænigfealde sōcna mid missenlicum namum. Stowlice gerecþegnung scira in Englalande sindon ceasterniscan scira and unceasterniscan scira, and on Norþwealum sind "scira" and "scirburgscipas". (Beforan 1975 wæron administrative counties (gerecþegnung scira) and scirburgscipu þa wæron gearærde in 1889.) Būton in Bearrucscire, ælcu unceasterniscu scira on Englum hæfþ scirgeþinge. Þa mæra scira and eall ceasterniscan scira sind gedæled in boldgetalum, ælc boldgetæl mid his agan geþinge.

In Norþerne Irlande wæron þa siexe scirgeþingu and scirburgescipgeþingu geended in 1973 and in hiere stedum sind 26 stowlicu gerecþegnung boldgetalu. Þa siexe eardfæstan scira abidað in gemænelicum nytte for mænigefealdum wisum.

In 1889 (Englalande and Wealum), 1890 (Scotland) and 1899 (Irland) wæron þa forman scirgeþingas geuparæred; hiere scira (oððe "gerec scira") folgeden þa eardfæstan scira. Endniwung in 1965 and 1974-1976 awendedon þa gerecþegnung carte icle; hie scopon niwa scira oft felaungelic þa eardfæstan scira on Englum and Wealum, and micla regia on Scottum buton scirum. Æfterbetung in 1992-1996 awendedon þa gerecþegnung carte edniwe.

Irland Cynewise[adihtan]

Irland Īege is bedæled in 32 scīra, hwærof 26 sind Irland-cynewise and 6 sind Norðerne Īrland.

Þas scira sind be ealdgesegene gesamned in feower underriciu - Leinster (tweolf scīra), Munster (siexe scīra) Connaught (fif scīra) and Uladstir (þrie scīr, ac siexe Uladstires scīra sind Norðern Irland). Ælce scīr hæfþ "scīr geþinge". Þa underrīciu nabbað ne onweald.

Þæt getæl and þa mæru þara gerec scirena þære Iriscan Cynewise wæron onwended fram 1990. Difelinscīr wæs gebrocen in þrim: Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal, and Suþ Difelin - Difelin-ceaster wæs geo scirburgscipe. Ēac sōþlic is gerec-"Tipperary Scīr" gedælede in twæm gerecþegnungum scirum, þa hatað Norþ Tipperary and Suþ Tipperary. Þa miclu ceasterniscan stedas, Corc, Galwæg, Limerice, and Weðerford sind scīrburgscipas, bedæled fram hierum scīrum. Forþæm hæfþ seo Cynewise feower and þeortig scīrhad geþingu.

Naþylæs, þa siexe and tweontig scīra and hiere landgemæro wuniað be æwe [1]. Þas scīra and underrīciu abidað in gemænige bryce, and scīrfæstnes is geforþgestranged be stōwlice holdscipe and gamen.

Cina[adihtan]

Man broceð þæt word "scir" to awendenne þæt Cinisc word xiàn. In þære Folclican Cynewīsum Cīnum, scira sind þæt stowlic gerecþgnung þing under þæm ealdormanndome, se is under þæm underrice.

In þara landum þara Hanwara (oþþe "ealdum Cinan") sind 2,000 scira, þas habbaþ abiden siððan þa Han Caserecynn (206 BC - AD 220). Seo scir is an þara ieldestan onwealda in Cinan; þa underriciu wæron be þæm Yuan Caserecynn (1279 - 1368) uparæred. Seo scir wæs hēahþegnung in caserelicum Cinan forþæm wæs hit se stowlicosta onweald þæs caserelican wealdes, under an scirgerefan.

Geānedu Rīcu American[adihtan]

Hēafodgewrits: Rīce þāra Geānlǣhtra Rīca American, and [[]], and [[]], and [[]], and [[]]
Landscīte ymbe American mid scīra mearcum.

Þa scīra sind in 48 þara 50 rīce þāra Geāneda Rīca American landsceap oþþe tōþegnung dālas fæst under þǣm rīce, and ofer þǣm burgscipe oþþe tunscipe.

Louisiana hæfþ þing gelic scīra ac hiere nama is parish (tūnsocn). Alaska is bedæled in burgscipum.

In twǣm rīcum and dǣl þridde hæfþ gesetnes beended scīr tōþegnung, and seo scīr is āngilde landsceap.

Liberia[adihtan]

Liberia hæfþ 15 scira. Ælcu cieseþ twegen ealdor to þæm Liberisc Senate.

Liþuania[adihtan]

Apskritis is þæt Liþuanisc word for scir. Siþþan 1994 hæfþ Liþuania 10 scira (beforan 1950 wæron 20). Þære scire ānglide þegnung is scirgerefscipe. Se scirgerefa is weard æ and gereces in þæm scire.

Swēoland and Finnland[adihtan]

Sweoland hæfþ to cynn dæla; þæt landskap and þæt län. In þæm Niwan Engliscan gereorde is hit geþeawe to awendienne landskap (se is on Englisce "landsceap") swa province and län" swa county (se is scir) oððæt ðe län" is neor "híernes" oððe "scipfylleþ". Finnland wæs dæl Sweorices oððæt 1815 and hæfþ þa ilcan landmet, ac from 1634 to 1997

Þa landskap sindon eardfæst. Sweoland hæfþ 25 landskap. Hie nabbaþ ne gerecþegnung bruc. Þa landskap sind in gemænige bryce, and sind þa landsceap hwærto Sweonas habbaþ stowlicum holdscipe.

Þa län wæron uparæsed in 1634 in Sweolande and Finnlande. Sweoland hæfþ nu 21 län, ælc mid ealdormann and geþinge. In Finnlande wæron 12 lääni ac siððan 1997. 6 lääni (and siððan þæm geare Finnas awendað lään oððe län on Niwe Englisce swa "region", se is "regio").

References[adihtan]

  1. In þæm Iriscan Cynewise sind 26 scīra. In Norþerne Irlande sind ēac 6 scīra. Manige Īre willen secgan þe Irland hæfð 32 scīra, seo Cynewise and Norðerne Irland ætgadre.
  2. e-나라지표 http://www.index.go.kr/gams/default.jsp (Kor)