Help:Hū secge ic/Human culture

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Human culture[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

Disciplines and professions[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

Jobs[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • job (position) - ǣrend m
  • work - ƿeorc m
  • profession, skill - cræft m
  1. administration - dihtung sf
    1. administrator, directer - dihtere sm
  2. art, craft - cræft sm, list sf
  3. music - drēam sm, (the skill) drēamcræft sm
    1. poetry - lēoþcræft sm
      1. poet - lēoþƿyrhta wm
    2. composing - drēamƿrītung sf [nw. lit. "music-writing"]
      1. compose - ƿrītan 1 s drēam acc. sm. [np. lit. "write music"]
      2. composer - drēamƿrītere sm [nw. lit. "music-writer"]
    3. painting - mētung sf
      1. paint - mētan 1 w
      2. painter - mētere sm
      3. picture - biliþ sn
  4. literature - bōccræft sm
    1. poetry - lēoþcræft sm
      1. poet - lēoþƿyrhta wm
    2. scholar - bōcere sm
    3. writing - ƿrītung sf
      1. writer, author - ƿrītere sm
        1. fiction writer - lēasspella gen. pl. sn ƿrītere sm
        2. historian - stǣrƿrītere
  5. performer - fyllend sm
    1. actor - scēaƿere sm
    2. clown, jester - glīƿere sm
    3. comedian - hleahtorsmiþ sm
    4. dancer - (esp. ballet and other dance forms that use much leaping) hlēapere sm, (esp. of lively, hopping dances) hoppere sm, (quite general) sealticge sf
    5. entertainer - feorm(i)end sm
    6. minstrel (performing musician) - glēomann sm, glēohlēoðriend sm
    7. musician - drēamere sm
    8. performer - feormend sm
    9. singer - sangere sm, lēoðere sm
  6. political work - ƿealdscipisc [nw] ƿeorc n
    1. politician - ƿealdsēcend m [nw]
      1. member of parliament - gemōtes gen. m. þegn m [np]
        1. president - foresittend sm
        2. prime minister - forma adj. þegn sm
  7. religious work - gelēafful adj. ƿeorc sn
    1. bishop - biscop sm
      1. archbishop - arcebiscop sm
    2. missionary - (someone spreads message) boda wm, (someone who works for better) ƿelƿyrcend sm
    3. monk - munuc sm
    4. pope - pāpa wm
    5. preacher - boda wm
    6. priest - prēost sm
  8. serving - þegnung sf
    1. servant - þegn sm
      1. female servant, maid-servant, midwife - þīƿen
    2. slave - þēoƿ sm
      1. female slave - þēoƿen sf
    3. waiter - discþegn
  • circolƿyrðe [] m (-es/-as) analyst, accountant, actuary (who are nothing like an "electronic computer!")
  • plegere - player (of sports)
  • spærcleƿyrhta (neologism) - electrical engineer
  • þēodƿita [] m (-n/-n) 1. one of the wise men of a nation, one whose knowledge fits him for a place on the councils of the nation, senator; 2. a man of great wisdom or learning, a sage, learned man;; 2a. used of a poet; 2b. used of a historian or philosopher or man of science
  • ūþƿita - philosopher?
  • ƿordbōcmann - lexicographer

Government[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • burglēoda [] m (-n/-n) citizen; burgmann [] m (-es/-menn) citizen
  • burhrǣden [] f (-ne/-na) citizenship
  • scīr [] f (-e/-a) 1. office, appointment, charge, authority, supremacy, business, administration, government; 1a. where the term refers to an English official; 2. a district, province, shire, as an ecclesiastical term diocese, parish, see; 2a. the people of a district, a tribe; 2b. a hut; 3. as a technical English term, a shire; 3a. the people of a shire, the community inhabiting a shire;
  • ƿyrhtan rihtƿrit n patent (neologism)
  • cyneƿīse f - the state, republic, commonwealth
  • cynelic - adj - public (as opposed to private, school, etc.)
  • folcrīce - n - democracy?
Foreign relations[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]
  • ǣrendraca [] m (-n/-n) messenger, apostle, ambassador, angel; representative, substitute, proxy
Executive[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]
  • foresittend - president
  • gerēfa, earlier girǣfa, of uncertain etym.; app. not in any way related to the continental forms cited under GRAF, GRAVE n.3 and n.4 Old Northumbrian had also the form grǣfa whence GRIEVE n.]
1. Hist. a. An Old English official of high rank having a local jurisdiction under the king; the chief magistrate of a town or district. Also, in OE., applied to prefects, governors, etc., of Roman and Jewish times.
On the position of the gerēfa in OE. times see Kemble Saxons in England (1876) II. v. 151-181; and cf. the articles on BOROUGH-REEVE, PORTREEVE, and SHERIFF. Modern writers have sometimes used the OE. form of the word. -- OED [=director of an executive agency?]
  • gerǣsƿa, an; m. [rǣsƿa, a chief] A chief, prince; dux, princeps :-- Cymeþ engla gerǣsƿa the prince of angels cometh, Salm. Kmbl. 223; Sal. 111. [=governor?]
  • gerēfmann [] m (-es/-menn) official, courtier
  • gerēfscipe [] m (-es/-as) reeve’s office, stewardship; consulate
  • gerēfscīr [] f (-e/-a) steward’s office, prefecture
  • rǣdbora [] m (-n/-n) advisor, counselor; (Roman) consul
  • þegn [] m (-es/-as) 1. servant, one who does service for another, minister, retainer, vassal, follower, disciple; freeman, master (as opposed to slave); courtier, noble (official, as distinguished from hereditary); 2 military attendant, warrior, hero; 2. where the service is of a public or official character, an officer, minister;
  • ƿealdend m ruler (often used for God, but see burgƿealda below)
Judicial[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]
  • dēma [] m (-an/-an) judge
  • gerēfærn [] n (-es/-) court-house
  • sprǣcærn [] n (-es/-) a place for speaking, courthouse

Parliament or Congress[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • mōt [] 1. 1 (usu ge~) n (-es/-) moot (gemot), society, assembly, court, council, synod; ge~ ƿyrcan to take counsel; litigation; ge~ conflict, encounter;
  • gemōtmann [] m (-es/-menn) orator, counselor


  • mōtbeorh1 [] m (-bēores/-bēoras) hill of meeting
  • mōtgerēfa [] m (-n/-n) moot-reeve, chairman of a moot
  • mōthūs1 [] n (-es/-) moot-hall, place of assembly


  • gerǣdnes, -rǣdnis, -rǣdnys, -ness, e; f. An ordinance, a decree, purpose, an intention, a resolution, condition; consultum :-- Ðis is seō geræ-acute;dnys ðe Eādgār cyng geræ-acute;dde this is the ordinance that king Eadgar ordained, L. Edg. i. pref; Th. i. 262, 2: L. E. G. pref; Th. i. 166, 5: L. Ath. v. pref; Th. i. 228, 6: L. Eth. vi. 1, 2, 3; Th. i. 314, 2, 12, 19: Cod. Dipl. ii. 150, 33: Th. Chart. 168, 27. In ðas gerēdnisse on this condition, 104, 20. [Cf. Goth. ga-raideins an ordinance.]
  • citizen [] ceasterbūend m, portƿer m, portƿeora m; ~s āðolƿare m pl; ~s ceasterlēode n pl, ceastersǣtan m pl, ceastersǣte m pl
Lords/Senate[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]
  • ƿita1 [] m (-n/-n) sage, philosopher, wise man, adviser, councilor, elder, senator;
  • ƿitenagemōt n


  • senatus [] m? (-es/-as) the senate, senators; pl senatas; dat senatum; senator is also used, but generally ƿītan is employed to denote the senators;
  • sprǣchūs [] n (-es/-) 1. senate-house, curia, a house for speaking; 1a. auditorium; 1b. a place in which the monastic school was held; 2. guest-quarters (in a monastery), a place in monastery for the reception of guests;
  • rǣdgift [] f (-e/-a) the office of consul, the consulate or consulship [consulatus], the council of the elders, the Senate, council of state, body of senators [senatus]


  • ealdor [] 1. m (-es/-as) elder; chief, governor, leader
  • rǣdbora [] m (-n/-n) advisor, counselor; (Roman) consul
  • þēodƿita [] m (-n/-n) 1. one of the wise men of a nation, one whose knowledge fits him for a place on the councils of the nation, senator; 2. a man of great wisdom or learning, a sage, learned man;; 2a. used of a poet; 2b. used of a historian or philosopher or man of science
  • duguþ m - senate, in the sense of the people who make it up
House of Commons/Representatives[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]
  • lēodstefn [] m (-es/-as) assembly
  • burgƿealda m burgess


  • gespelia - representative, thus gespecilanhūs
  • spala [] m (-n/-n) substitute, representative
  • spelian [] wv/t2 3rd pres spelaþ past spelode ptp gespelod to be substitute for, represent, to act as the representative of another, take or stand in, the place of another;
  • speliend [] m (-es/-) substitute, representative, vicar
  • speling [] f (-e/-a) deputyship, the taking the place of another, the acting as a representative of another;
  • spelung [] f (-e/-a) deputyship, the taking the place of another, the acting as a representative of another;
  • speliendhūs seems the best looking to me.
Regional[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]
  • scīr [] f (-e/-a) 1. office, appointment, charge, authority, supremacy, business, administration, government; 1a. where the term refers to an English official; 2. a district, province, shire, as an ecclesiastical term diocese, parish, see; 2a. the people of a district, a tribe; 2b. a hut; 3. as a technical English term, a shire; 3a. the people of a shire, the community inhabiting a shire;
  • scīrƿita [] m (-n/-n) chief man of a shire
  • scīrgemōt [] n (-es/-) shire-moot, a meeting of the duly qualified men of a shire

See also: Talk:Geānlǣht Underrīcu American

The Town[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]
  • burgealdor m mayor
  • burggemōt n town-meeting, meeting of townspeople
  • burgmann m resident
  • burgsæl2 [] n (-es/-salu) city-hall, house
  • burgscipe m municipality
  • burgƿealda m citizen, burgess
  • burgƿita m town-councillor or city-councillor

Clothing[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • cloth - cloþ n
  • garment - hrægel n
  1. dress - brǣdels m, hrægel n
  2. shirt - hemeðe n
    1. sleeve - slēf f
    2. T-shirt - sceortslēfed hemeðe n [new phrase]
  3. skirt, kilt - scyrte wf
  4. trousers, pants - brōc i-mut. f
    1. shorts - sceorthosed brōc i-mut. f [new phrase]

Human body and bodily necessities[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

-See also Life

Food and drink[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • drink - drinc m
  • food - fōda wm, ǣt n
  • edible - etendlic [nw]
  • to drink - drican 3s
  • to eat - etan 5s
  1. food - fōda wm
    1. dairy produce - meolcmete m [nw]
      1. butter - butter f
      2. cheese - cīese m
      3. cream - flēt f
      4. curds - calƿer m
      5. ice-cream - īsflēt f [nw]
      6. milk - meolc f
    2. meat - flǣscmete m
    3. plant - ƿyrte wf
      1. fruit - ƿæstm m
        1. avocado - grēnheorte wf [nw]
        2. berry - berige wf [same word also used for grape - perhaps could specify grape as "ƿīnberige"]
          1. strawberry - strēaƿberige wf
        3. citrus fruit - sūrƿyrt sf [nw]
          1. grapefruit - goldclīeƿen sn [nw]
          2. lemon - fealunwæstm m [nw]
          3. mandarin - sƿētrēada wm [nw]
          4. orange - fȳrheorte wf [nw]
          5. tangerine - rēadel sn [nw]
        4. plantain (the fruit) - brādƿyrtaƿæstm m [nw]
          1. banana - geolubūgel sn [nw. lit "yellow-bent")
      2. grain - corn sn
        1. barley - berecorn n, bærlic m
        2. maize - Ƿīnlendisc corn sn [nw lit. "American corn"]
        3. oat - āte wf
        4. rice - ƿætercorn sn [nw lit. "water-grain"]
        5. rye - ryge sm
        6. wheat - hƿǣt sm
      3. vegetable - ƿyrte wf
        1. (edible) root - moru sf
          1. carrot - feldmoru sf [they didn't have orange carrots back then - perhaps could specify with "geolurēad"]
          2. parsnip - feldmoru sf [perhaps could specify with "hƿīt"]
          3. potato - eorþæppel sm [nw based on German and Dutch]

Structures[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • to build - timbrian 2w
  1. structure - timber sm
    1. building - bold sn
      1. hall - sæl sn, ræced sm/n
      2. house - hūs sn
      3. tower - stīepel sm
        1. ski-scraper - hēah adj stīepel sm
  2. arch - boga sm
    1. bridge - brycg sf

Religion/Spirituality[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  1. god - god n
    1. God (of monotheistic belief system) - God m
    2. goddess - gyden f
  2. belief - gelēafa m
    1. religion - gelēafadōm m [neologism], halignis f, þēodness f
  3. devil - dēofol m/n, scucca m
    1. demon - fēond m, hildedēofol m/n, (goblin/goblin-like creature) pūcel/pūca m, scucca m
  4. spirituality - gǣstedōm m
    1. spirit - gāst m
    2. spiritual - gāstlic
  5. theism - godgelēafa m
    1. deism - feorgodgelēafa m [neologism], gelēafa þæt god ne ƿyrceþ betƿeox mannum m
    2. monotheism - āngodgelēafa m [neologism], gelēafa of ānum Gode m
    3. paganism - hǣðenscipe m
    4. pantheism - eallgodgelēafa m [neologism], gelēafa þæt eall is god m
    5. polytheism - maniggodgelēafa m [neologism], gelēafa of manigum godum m

Religions/Spiritualities[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

1. Buddhism - Būddendōm m [neologism]

  1. Buddha - Būdda m [rendered as Anglo-Saxon pronunciation]

2. Christianity - Crīstendōm m

  1. Bible - Biblioþēce f
    1. New Testament - Nīƿe Ǣ f, Nīƿe Gecyþnis f
    2. Old Testament - Eald Ǣ f, Eald Gecyþnis f
  2. denomination - gelēafincel n [neologism], cirice f [new usage?]
    1. Catholicism - Rēmisc Cirice f (the English Christians of the Anglo-Saxon period did not have much of a conception of different denominations, partly because there were very few; and Catholicism was more or less the national denomination of Christianity in England - to put it short, this is a "new" phrase)
    2. Protestantism - Nīwodlic Cirice f (neologism)
      1. Baptist Church - Fulliende Cirice f (neologism)
      2. Presbyterian Church - Eoldorscipisc Cirice f (neologism)
  3. disciple - gingra m, discipul m
  4. God - God m
    1. God the Father - (se) Hēahfæder m, (se) Dryhten m
    2. (the) Holy Ghost/Spirit - (se) Hālig(a) Gāst m
    3. Jesus - Iesus m
    4. (the) Logos - (se) Rǣd m
    5. (the) Lord - (se) Dryhten m
    6. (the) Rhema - (þæt) Gāstlic(e) Andgit
    7. (the) Trinity - (sēo) Þrīnis f, (se) Þrīhād m

3. Hinduism - Hindendōm m [neologism]

  1. god - god n
    1. goddess - gyden f

4. Islam - Alladōm m [neologism]

  1. God - God m
    1. Allah - Alla m [the Anglo-Saxons had no native word for Allah]
  2. Koran - Coran m [the Anglo-Saxon people were not very aware of Islam, and, as far as I know, had no word for the Koran, so I have just replaced the K in Modern English with the more common Old English-wise C]

5. Judaism - Iudēadōm m [neologism]

  1. God - God m
    1. Yahweh - Iaƿē m [phoneticization of Yahƿeh]
  2. Hebrews - Hebrēas m plural
    1. Hebrew [adjective] - Hebrēisc
    2. Hebrew (language) - Hebrēisc
    3. Hebrew (person) - Hebrēisc mann m, Hebrēisc wīf f
  3. Jews - Iudēas m plural
    1. Jew - Iudēisc m
    2. Jewish - Iudēisc
  4. Tanakh - Tanah m [phoneticization of Tanakh]

Sports[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • ball - se ball [1]
  • capacity (for a stadium) - sēo (lēoda)andefen
  • championship - se ċeampscipe
  • coach - se (hēafod)ƿita (it's a loose term, but still)
  • competition - se camp
  • confederation (across several nations, such as UEFA) - se þoftscipe
  • conference (eastern/western) - se underþoftscipe, se/þæt oferdǣl
  • defense - se scield, þæt ȝebeorg
  • division - se/þæt dǣl
  • equipment - sēo ȝearƿe (gear)
  • field/pitch - se feld
  • football - fōtball
    • association football (soccer) - clīeƿenfōtball
  • foul (violation) - se bryċe, sēo misdǣd
  • goal - þæt gōl [2]
  • hockey - hōciȝ (untranslatable)
  • level/tier - þæt emnet
  • lose - feallan
  • loss/defeat - se fyl (fall)
  • match (individual game occurrence) - se mæcca
  • national - rīċisc
  • offense - sēo þracu (kind of a stretch...)
  • pads - sēo beorge (protection)
  • practice - ȝearƿian
  • puck - se pucca
  • rank(ing) - se hād
  • referee/umpire - se ƿeard (keeper, warden)
  • rink/ring - se hring [3]
  • score - þæt tæl (noun form of tellan, to count/tally)
  • season - se tīma
  • sport - se pleȝa, sēo indryhtu (Icelandic, Swedish), þæt indryhtegamen ("gamen" is too ambiguous), se sport (the whole planet uses it...)
  • sports complex - se indryhteȝeard
  • stadium - se spyrd
  • team - se tēam [4]
  • tie/draw - þæt efentæl (even number)
    • members - þā menn (gender neutral)
  • win/victory - se siȝe
  • win (verb) - ȝeƿinnan, siȝe niman