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Middelenglisc spræc

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Þis geƿrit hæfþ ƿordcƿide on Nīƿenglisce.

Middel Englisc spæcen Engla and Scottas in þæm middelyldum in missenlicum aganspræcum, and man secgþ þe þisses gereordes ylde wæs þreo hund gearena of þæm ende þæs 12. gearhund oþ þæs 15. gearhundes ende ac man ne mot fæste bedælan Ænglisc spræc fram ærgeara Middelenglisc noððe Niwenglisc fram æfterweardum Middelenglisce and efne in Heanrices VIII Cyninges dæg fint man Middel Englisc scopcræft in Speke Parott þæm leode þone wrat Iohannes Skelton larteow and scop.

Middel Englisc greow ut Ænglisc spræc æfter þæm Norman tocyme in 1066. Wide wæs he gesprocen þurh þære Plantagenetylde (1154–1485). Seo Middelenglisc yld endode ymbe 1470, þæn sceaw 'Cancelere Seles Bysen', se wæs of Lundenes agansspræc, and begann to weardenne widespread æfter þe Willelm Caxton brohtede þone printing press on Bryten. Be þissa ylde ƿæs Norþhymbra aganspræc strang on Scottum and in norþernum Englaland and of him forþatyddrede Scyttisc and þone gereorde se todæg hæfþ his sceadwe on Geordie.

Æfter 1470 oþ 1650 wæs Engla gereord Ǣrlice Nīƿenglisce.

Fruma[adiht | adiht fruman]

Ær Normadiges cyningas wæs Englisc þæs cynelican hired þæs spræce gesprōcen on West Seaxum, oððæt ðe oft mōt man readan geweorcas on Miercena spræc. Middel Englisc wæs of manigum læppan, ac his gesetlede bysen in þæm cancelleres sele wæs of Miercum, and Westseaxena gereordes ierfan forþferde.

Scopas and writeras[adiht | adiht fruman]

Fea Middel Englisc scopas cunnan we þæs 12. gearhundes oððe þæs and 13. gearhundes forþæm þe on þæm hired ƿrāt man on Læden oððe Frencisc. In þæm 14. gearhund arāsen scopas on him wæron Geoffrey Chaucer, William Langland, John Gower, and se ungenemneda Perl Scop. Chaucer wæs se mæsta scop on Englacynn siððan Cynewulfes dæg.

Eac þa Lollardas wrat on hiera aganspræce þe hie motan bringan Godes word þæm folce butan Romes handum. Iohannes Wycliffe and Iohannes Purvey wraten in swylce wise.

In 1470 brohtede Willelm Caxton ge þryccræft to Englalande and Chauceres Canterwaraburg Spellas (Tales of Caunterbury)[1] geþrycede he in 1478.

History[adiht | adiht fruman]

ƿihtig tēoƿe for ðære getimbrunge þæs umborunges of Middelenglisc spræc of Ænglisc spræc sind ðā Ormulum (12th century), the Ancrene Wisse and the Katherine Group (early 13th century) and Ayenbite of Inwyt (ca. 1340).[2]

Gramer[adiht | adiht fruman]

Mid his gesundodan cas-endunge, þæs grames of Middelenglisc spræc is mycele nearo to þæs of nūtīd Englisc þonne þæs of Ænglisc spræc. To ðam begetan wið oðrum þæm ðēodiscum gierelicum, hit is ƿēnlicor seofon þæm to þæm of nūtīd Ƿestfrisisc, ān of Engliscra nīehstena maga.

Gewrit on Middelenglisce[adiht | adiht fruman]

Ormulum, 12. gearhund[adiht | adiht fruman]

This passage explains the background to the Nativity:

Forrþrihht anan se time comm
  þatt ure Drihhtin wollde
ben borenn i þiss middellærd
  forr all mannkinne nede
he chæs himm sone kinnessmenn
  all swillke summ he wollde
and whær he wollde borenn ben
  he chæs all att hiss wille.
Forþrihte sona cwom se time
þe ure Dryhten wolde
bwon geborenn in þissum middangearde
for ealles mancynne niede,
ceas he sona kinsmen,
eall swylce he wolde,
and hwær he wolde beon geborenn
he ceas eall æt his willan.


Epitaph of John the smyth, died 1371[adiht | adiht fruman]

Bysen:Further An epitaph from a monumental brass in an Oxfordshire parish church:[4]

Original text
man com & se how schal alle ded li: wen yolk comes bad & bare
moth have ben ve awaẏ fare: All ẏs wermēs yt ve for care:—
bot yt ve do for god ẏs luf ve haue nothyng yare:
yis graue lẏs John ye smẏth god yif his soule hewn grit
Man, cyme and seo hu sceallon eall deada menn liegan: þæn cymþ bad and bare,
we have nothing when we away fare: all that we care for is worms:—
except for that which we do for God's sake, we have nothing ready:
under this grave lies John the smith, God give his soul heavenly peace

Wycliffes Biblioþece, 1384[adiht | adiht fruman]

From the Wycliffe's Bible, (1384):

Chaucer, 1390s[adiht | adiht fruman]

The following is the beginning of the general Prologue from The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. The text was written in a dialect associated with London and spellings associated with the then-emergent Chancery Standard.

Original in Middle English:
Whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour;
Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth
Inspired hath in every holt and heeth
The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne
Hath in the Ram his halfe cours yronne,
And smale foweles maken melodye,
That slepen al the nyght with open ye
(So priketh hem Nature in hir corages);
Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages
And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes
To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes;
And specially from every shires ende
Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende,
The hooly blisful martir for to seke
That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seeke.
Onwended on Englisce:
When in April the sweet showers fall
And pierce the drought of March to the root, and all
The veins are bathed in liquor of such power
As brings about the engendering of the flower,
When also Zephyrus with his sweet breath
Exhales an air in every grove and heath
Upon the tender shoots, and the young sun
His half course in the sign of the Ram has run
And the small fowl are making melody
That sleep away the night with open eye,
(So nature pricks them and their heart engages)
Then folk long to go on pilgrimages,
And palmers long to seek the stranger strands
Of far off saints, hallowed in sundry lands,
And specially from every shires' end
Of England, down to Canterbury they wend
The holy blissful martyr, quick
To give his help to them when they were sick

Gower, 1390[adiht | adiht fruman]

The following is the beginning of the Prologue from Confessio Amantis by John Gower.

Original in Middle English:
Of hem that writen ous tofore
The bokes duelle, and we therfore
Ben tawht of that was write tho:
Forthi good is that we also
In oure tyme among ous hiere
Do wryte of newe som matiere,
Essampled of these olde wyse
So that it myhte in such a wyse,
Whan we ben dede and elleswhere,
Beleve to the worldes eere
In tyme comende after this.
Bot for men sein, and soth it is,
That who that al of wisdom writ
It dulleth ofte a mannes wit
To him that schal it aldai rede,
For thilke cause, if that ye rede,
I wolde go the middel weie
And wryte a bok betwen the tweie,
Somwhat of lust, somewhat of lore,
That of the lasse or of the more
Som man mai lyke of that I wryte:
Onwended on Englisce: (by Richard Brodie)[5]
Of those who wrote before our lives
Their precious legacy survives;
From what was written then, we learn,
And so it's well that we in turn,
In our allotted time on earth
Do write anew some things of worth,
Like those we from these sages cite,
So that such in like manner might,
When we have left this mortal sphere,
Remain for all the world to hear
In ages following our own.
But it is so that men are prone
To say that when one only reads
Of wisdom all day long, one breeds
A paucity of wit, and so
If you agree I'll choose to go
Along a kind of middle ground
Sometimes I'll write of things profound,
And sometimes for amusement's sake
A lighter path of pleasure take
So all can something pleasing find.

Fruman[adiht | adiht fruman]

  1. Carlson, David. "The Chronology of Lydgate's Chaucer References". The Chaucer Review, Vol. 38, No. 3 (2004), pp. 246-254. Accessed 6 January 2014.
  2. Burchfield, Robert W. (1987). "Ormulum", Dictionary of the Middle Ages. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-18275-0. , p. 280
  3. (1878) The Ormulum: with the notes and glossary of Dr R. M. White. Two vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  Internet Archive: Volume 1; Volume 2.
  4. Utechin, Patricia [1980] (1990). Epitaphs from Oxfordshire, 2nd, Oxford: Robert Dugdale, 39. ISBN 0-946976-04-X. 
  5. Brodie, Richard (2005). John Gower's 'Confessio Amantis' Modern English Version. "Prologue". Writen fram the original on March 29, 2013. Begieten on March 15, 2012.
  • Brunner, Karl (1962) Abriss der mittelenglischen Grammatik; 5. Auflage. Tübingen: M. Niemeyer (1st ed. Halle (Saale): M. Niemeyer, 1938)
  • Brunner, Karl (1963) An Outline of Middle English Grammar; translated by Grahame Johnston. Oxford: Blackwell

Utwearda hlencas[adiht | adiht fruman]