Iacobustūn (Firginiæ)

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Land Ġeānod Cynerīċe (1607–1775)
Geanedan Ricu America (1776–)
Underrice   Uirginia Landgebūnes (1607–1775)
Uirginiæ (1776–)
Gestaðelod Þrimilcemonað 1607
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Iacobustūn (Niwenglisc: Jamestown or Niwenglisc: Jamestowne) wǣs ǣn byrig on Uirginia þǣre Landgebūnes, Þurh þisne dæg cuþ swā þā mǣg þæs landes Uirginiæ.

Þurh eal þæs setlunge hīstorƿe, ƿel settlemen ƿæs ġenēodliċlīċ swā Iacobustūnceaster, Iacobustūn and Iacobuswīc.

Iacobustūn, along with nearby Ƿillamesbyrg and Eoforwīctūn compose of Virginia's "Historic þrīhyrneġesceap "

Bæcgrund[adiht | adiht fruman]

Bǣre ġemǣre Iacobustūn, ēowertiēne ǣlcynd habbaþ bēon ġeforsēne on Norðan Miercna be Spēonland, Francland and Englaland. Ūt of þisum, anlīc twā Spānlāc ġemǣre forlīefedon, þæt ġefremmede Iacobustūn þæt ðridda Eoropīsc gemynd þe tīma þisse rǣþe ġeflēon. Sē forma ġemǣre ġeforsēne be Spain wæs on 1526 at San Miguel de Gualdape. Swȳþe lȳtel wæs cuð of hit, ðinga ðæt his ġelōcum wæs hwǣr on ðæm mēre of nū-middangeard Georgia oþþe Suþcarolina.

On 1562, Jean Ribaut ġestælde ġemǣre Ġisces Huguenota clypod Ċeorlesceaster on Parisiaceīeg, Suþcarolina. Hē ġelǣfde ymbe 27 menn þǣr hwīlum hē eft ġeferede to Francen. Swā hwīlum, ðā menn þæs ġemǣres oferþancodon ongean hiera æþeling. Hī arwurpon an bāt and ġefēohten to ġeferan to Francen.

Þā Englisc ġeferedon Rōƿrenoc ġemǣre on 1587. Ac þis wæs an mīnspreca. Iacobus I Bretta Cyning ġestǣrde ā an ceorter on 1606 to ġesette an setlung on Norðan Miercna. Ā þǣm āglǣca Englalande nēn bǣra ðone eall land (ufan Florida) Uirginiæ æfter Ælīsebeth I of Englalande, ðǣre "ƿēdend ġesīðe." Ān of ðār ƿǣre of ðæm niwum ġemǣre wǣron þæt findan an rīfer ġeatrīm to ðǣm Sundorhafne to ġesette þēode mid ðǣm Orient.

Þrēo scipu, þæt Susan Constant, þæt Godspeed and þæt Discovery setton segl fram Lundene on Þrimilce 20, 1606 bunden to Uirginia þǣre Landgebūnes. Onboard þǣr wǣron 106 setleras (4 wǣron boys) and 39 ƿēre gewitan. Gēðȳstan, hit nis nōt cūð hwonne swā maniġe meahtan bēon ācwelede on ðā Scipfærd. Hī ġēlǣrdon on Ēastermōnað 26, 1607.

Settlemantan ond passtalu[adiht | adiht fruman]

Mappe æf Iacobustūnīeg fram 1958.

Spānland, Portugal, and Francen hratlīce ġeƿurdon tō rēafigen an ġesƿenc in ðǣm Nīƿan Wurulde, hwīle ōðre Europisc lēode hratliċer ġeferedon. Þā Englisc ne ġeƿēnodon tō stǣnnenne ġemǣru ær manige hund-ġeƿintre ofer ġeferodnes þæs Iohannes Cabot, and ǣrlīc foranwyrht ƿǣron miðclæðum — mǫstanotlīċlīċ Rōƿrenoc Ġemǣre, þæt þān midmōndes hwīlum ƿānde ymbe 1590.

Gestaðelod (1607–1609)[adiht | adiht fruman]

Sē ƿæferƿegesetlƿan sƿincedon landfære on Æplū 26, 1607, āt ǣr ƿicc fǣrena hȳ nemdun Cape Henry. Under ƿēotlācnung tō cēosan nēah-sæter þone, hī ġetǣldon ymbe eorƿurde hwæt is nū Hampton Roads and sƿilc uteǣð þǣt ǣrnesse ġenemend þone Iacobus ēa on ǣrest þegnscipes to Iacobus I Bretta Cyning. Capitan Edward Maria Wingfield ƿæs gecōren þone prēost of ðǣm rīƿlīcan rād on Æplū 25, 1607. On Þrimilcemōnað 14, hē gecōren eorƿurde landstynt of an geƿīnde neordpensillume hwilc þǣt ƿæs an frēo þrȳgēnes 40 mīlum inlend fram ðǣm Atlanƿinde Sǣ sƿilc an ācsian stynt for an ƿīgend stōdende þegn mīn of in alȳsung æteretniȝe. Sē ƿæterweges cund ǣrƿeornig hęlga ƿirg for ǣrna in sē, and hē ƿæs nēah to þǣre lande, ġefrȳne hit ƿæs swimmende and ǣrende genōg land for bearas oþþe ƿeardas tō būȝi in sē fram ǣriste. ærȳnliċe ond tō þās ēces. Haligbryce ƿæs þæt sē stynt ǣƿęlīc hērborod ġiƿun þē ġerāt hwæt ledaƿera þæt þe leadende of þǣm niƿe middȳr mǣdde oferþōhtende þaȝne neah biġorn neēa for þone lēodan of neah biġorn þe biġorn sīþon ofærænīc.

Þā Iacobustūn bearod ġeforan on Uirginiæ ƿegnes strongmȳcþ, æfter an rǣsȳrċe stūd ġedōn on sē 1990s be sē Iacobustūn Archēolōƿiċ Assessyng (JAA) tēam. Sē JAA geƿissode tācnunge from a studiġāt ymbe 1985 by Daƿid Stahle ond ōðra, hƿā beraðon rȳping of 800-wintra eald bald cypress treowas ymb ðǣm Nottoway ond Blacƿæter strēamas. Sē līf-tīma þæs þēowas hērige oþþe tō 1,000 geāra, ond hīera hringas boffian an āga tācne of an eorðan mægð. Sē borian lēt ƿōdon þæt sē seomast līs of 700 geāra bēon āhȳde betƿen 1606 ond 1612. Þis sēre līs of 700 geāra ġewoƿd þā þe bearod þæs Iacobustūn settler ond þe Powhatan þēoda mæge tō ācuman ƿyrcen ƿiðrēow ond getōgen dǣles æfter friðloca þā-nesse.

Sēo landdes of Iacobustun earon sealtmersċ, hwelċ macian hit earfoþe to cultivō croppan. Ðā riċele cēolswæðu on þǣre īeglande ƿǣron þæs anƿīcpunge grōƿefernes for myggan.

Þā bearod ǣac ġeforan tō lǣte on þǣm geāre tō ġietan ƿæstmen geƿynon. Manyġe on ðǣm fylɣe ƿǣron oþþe ġegearwe hēra oþþe hiera manƿeard, ƿā ilcġe unācuðġyfte ƿeahte by ðæm hræftan unearƿig bi þæm swīðre gehǣrnes of an onrīcēnd fort. Ān of þīes was Robert Hunt, ā ætƿenem ƿǣn of Reculver, Englaland, hƿā biscop cēƿde ðæt frēo cuðost Anglican eucharist on þone land þǣre ƿīse Ameriċan United States on Sēarmōnað 21, 1607.

Twā-ƿæðerþēod þǣra bearod ġeforan dēad ǣr scipu ġefaran on 1608 on þǣm forþƿeard ond ōðra forþƿeard be capitan Nīƿeport ġecierredon tōgeðer on ƿæta ond forta ƿeardas, ƿā ġehelpan tō ġ.

Hungriġæra (1609-1610)[adiht | adiht fruman]

After Smith ƿæs forcst to ræƿirn to Englaland bī ǣxspreotung sē ðǣr him dēope bēorndrōwunces tō cƿicnesses sealde during an handlende æscip-ƿegferþ,[29] sē ġemǣre ƿæs ġeledd fram Georgius Percig, sē sē ǣþolscip mægencræftiġ on þæt hyrēn mid þǣm inbyrdendum þēoda. Þǣr synt twēma hūsȳs þæt þā in Lundenigcnēowu ġefrætǣlwodon ond ƿalnōm ǣlċoƿon Smithes bēorhtnes. Sē þridda hēalsungaƿ for 1609 ƿæs sīðōmearcēst ond ƿēlāŋƿyrpēst. Hī ġeƿunnon lǣs an niƿereo byrðsig-sīnesce, Sǣ Feriend, ġebȳodene ond ālȳsode on þæt mǣstan of līcġiefen, Christophorous Nīƿeport.

On Iūn 2, 1609, Sǣ Feriend sette seal fram Plȳmouth, Englaland, sē sīn mǣrlǣȝas of ā sȳnanig-skīrȳpan (dragend twēora tīnungene pinnaces) beȝētode for Iacobustūn sƿilc dǣl of sǣrdun ǣs þridde gefor-ƿeardan, ġewænde 214 bearod. On Mǣdmōnað 24, sǣ mǣþȳȳᵹ ġelaufen in ġesƿȳþen storm, hlinlicc an hrēosanbora, ond þæt scip ƿæron ġedǣld. Þēah sume of sǣ scipƿlottodon to Iacobustūn, sē laƿmen ond mǣst of sǣ bearod hæfde bēon on sǣ Feriend, sē hī fahtende ǣfeng þone storm for þrēo dagas ǣr sē Ealdorman of Þǣre Sōciety, Sir Georgius Somers, ƿīsdōmlice ġefaren hit beigra of sǣ scylm þæt þǣr ġeƿurþen. Þīt ġelāt sǣ eall ġebæranne sīn ġeƿǣren. Þā gelīfenden (ƿiðleþenantðe-General Sir Thomas Gates, Capitan Christophorous Nīƿeport, Syluester Iordain, Stēfin Hopkins—later of Mayflower—ond secretary William Strachey) ƿǣron ġesteorde on Bermuda for ȳlen sȳnende. During þæt tima, hī þēoƿon twā niƿe scip, sǣ pinnaces Ġedelōmnes ond Țroƿðsumnes. Sē ȳreþlīc tācnung wæs tō byldanne ǣn rād, Ġedelōmnes, ac hit ārƿærlīce ƿeorþen māre gesƿȳþe tō ceasteren ġewītnisse ond eall of ðæm faru þæt ƿæs bēon on sǣ landƿara on sǣ bears ond all of ðæm fōd (sālten sǣƿan) þæt ƿæs bēon hīred on þæm ielƿiglanden.

Ǣn ȝræfġeard on Iacobustūn fram sēo hunȝriġæra.

Ʃil sǣ þriddes ƿæs ȝeforan on Bermuda, sē ġemǣre et Iacobustūn ƿæs on ēfen lað-liċer stede. Ȝebearod mægan liƿeandlic byrðȝierƿrǣsnes for willan of aðƿorlīcen byrdƿæddung. During þæs tima, lāc of fōd drīfode ðā folces tō etan nædran ond ēnnyþ boil þæt tȳðer from sċēoga for life. Ǣnlic 60 of ðā ealdorƿordƿihta 214 beƿænne on Iacobustūn beƿunnon. Ʒeƿīse liclytƿīsnes ond cīenlīċe scinlīc cƿīde þæt ðā beƿæn of Iacobustūn hæfde ðrað tō ƿaƿƿþre time.

Ʃea scipas from Bermuda cōmon tō Iacobustūn on Þrimilcemōnað 23, 1610. Ȝeƿīslic of ðā lifiend landwerod ƿǣron neaþr deað ond Iacobustūn ƿæs dēemed tō bēon unmanendlic. Eall werod bēon befaren onto Ġedelōmnes ond Țroƿðsumnes, sē þæt segl for Englaland. Hoƿeƿer, on Iūn 10, 1610, sē tīma byst ġeliċta sēre tīdliċ ārīƿen of ænig oþer beƿǣre bēornde, þǣrȳniend þæs Governor Thomas West, 3rd Bera of Lā Warr (sē hoƿeƿer ƿǣre ġefeƿen of his nama tō þæs ġemǣres of Delaware), þǣt mēt þā twā scipƿergu ǣs hī ġesǣlden þās Iames Rīfer, gemedmet Iacobustūn.

Sylfstondedburh (1610-1624)[adiht | adiht fruman]

Forþon þæt ðā æðelborennes of menigra þǣra bearod, an eald-hlīf þēas ȳndrōƿ, ond þæt gesāmliċe cynn of hiera dǣd ƿurcƿiht, ƿeaxan þurh ðā frumlicgan ġeara wæron ymætlic. Be 1613, siex geāra æfter Iacobustūn grundung, þā eorƿurdes ond ġehylderas of Uirginiæ Company wǣron unǣðe tō ēacan þæt ēaðmōd ond ðǣręcnis of ðā wrǣnƿigende bearod. Būtan ðæm ġeneaþlīcan willan þǣra hlyseƿara ðæs Gūƿerna, Sir Thomas Dale, ġestefnad 3 āceras (12,000 m2) æceras tō his "ēalra þīdēs bōcƿeorð" ond lēasaer æceras tō ðǣm beƿēs ƿīþercuman of ðǣm bearod. Gemiðod weriglic ƿinnon ƿæs ġeworht, ond ðā bearod arǣrdon þǣra āƿinnung tō land biēndan tō ƿældes þām folclīċum. Þæt þes ġecēawilc ƿende bēon cȳðlīc ƿan þe ƿær ðæt ēaðlēoc ær ðā englisc bearod ƿilfȳrceȝang ƿelde þe ġeþræcnung ƿarað and-gītslic.

Onmiddan ðǣm bearod þe ġenāġlīƿode þǣs Ūƿeǣnden Tīme ƿæs Iohannes Rolfe, se ðe þægðan mid him ġebraht an hlad of unƿornad tobaccan sǣd fram Bermuda, þe ƿæs ġeorþne ƿilte ðǣr æfter þæt ġeweorde ðǣr beðrinced be scipƿrecced Spanas geāra ǣr. On 1614, Rolfe onfēng tō ġefēran tobaccan. Þrīƿle ond ƿealeġ, hē fēreþe Pocahontas, ġebringende sum bēorh of frēodōm betƿīxt ðā englisc ond ðā ġēſpræca. Hƿæt, āt ðǣm ēndeleas frēodōme ðæs tilnæh brīef tō Engleland, Pocahontas becōm sēoc ond diede on Mǣrs 21, 1617. Þā fyligende geār, hier fæder ġewāt, Þeodor Opechancanough, an wælmoð ġūþer, ƿurðende earda þās Powhatan Confederacy. Sē ðe Englisc onmiddan ƿendian tō oferfeormian þā land ƿirniss ƿorsienċa bið.

Forþon ðæs hēahlica āƿent ðǣra trans-Atlantican yƿǣt on ðisse tiid, menig Englisc bearod comon tō Iacobustūn sƿilce ðēn inforstðes ƿeorold: on ġecǣþe fōr, tīd, and ƿyrde, þās eadfrēgnan ƿiðercuman ƿoldan ġegyrwian for þrēo tō seofon geār. Ġeƿænnas fram continental Europe, mǣnlīce Ġermanes, wǣron sƿilce inlīhtend. hī ġelǣnedon sum dǣl hiera yƿǣt on ġemyndig of ðǣm hræftan ond, on ācuman, lēasod oþþe ġeƿurdon into ǣnne ƿeorc ġebēod tō ġelēðan þone hlysen of hiera yƿǣt onstun.

In 1619, sē forma ġeƿæmliċra gemōt in Amerīca, sē Gemōt, gedeafan in þām Ċerċe on Iacobustūn, "tō gesetanne ān ēᴳn scȳr and ān mēde gemyndliċum hādes ōð þæt folc þǣr ƿunnunge." ƿǣron Englisc ǣðelic men bǣre tōsƿigene. On Iūn 30, 1619, on hƿæt ƿæs sē forma ġeƿriten strīc in Ċolonial Amerīca, sē Polisce weorcmen uprōdan and āsetton tō ƿerienne gēmǣting gif nēn lǣfedon tō tōsƿīgan. On Mǣdmōnað 21, 1619, sē dōm ȝefadum þǣm Polscum gēmǣnne stēadƿēr andlēfan tōsƿigan gēmǣnne riht. Æfter tōsƿigene on ierelēst, þā weorcmen ȝȳdden tō ƿierkenna. Ānliċ land ōƿnetēʓunge ƿæs eac ġecynde, ond sē bearod ƿæs ġecynd in tō fēower brāde "ƿrēngan" oþþe "gēmǣnan ġebēotena" and hātode "ceasteras" fram sē bearod. Iacobustūn wæs beforan on James Ceaster.

Of sē ǣrest gewriten Afriscan þrāfas tō anstælan in Englisc Norð Amerīca, on sē sętl ƿearþ Hƿīte Leo on Āugust 1619, ƿǣron an Afrisc man and ƿīf, ōferr cīġsen Antoney ond Isabella. Ġemynd in sē 1624 rechenunge in Uirginiæ, hīe ƿǣron sē ǣrest Afrisc famiƿe beċweden on Iacobustūn. Hir cild, ġenemden William Tucker, ƿearþ sē ǣrest ġewriten Afrisc cild geƀorcen on Brixisc Norð Amerīca. Ōðer of sē ærlīċ Afrisc þrāfas tō anstælan ġeƀoran in sē sętl ƿæs Angela, sē ƿæs ƿercan for Capitan William Peirce.

Æfter ȝeleornia ȝēar of gebuʓunge samþing, Ċief Opechancanough ond his Powhatan Scyld, ġecwemd tō ārǣran Englisc bearod ǣfre ȝēar. On sē morgen of Mars 22, 1622, hīe ealla ȝefōron utlīgend cūðne ȝestan and steðige bēon Iaccobus ēa on hƿæt ƿæs ġecnyt sē Indisc blōtōse of 1622. More ðan 300 setleras wǣron ȝecwellen on sē ȝestan, ymb þrid ǣrddǣl of sē bearod Englisce sprecende folces. Dale gesƿiðran on Henricus, sē wæs tō ƿȳnnen an hrōf to lǣran sē Indisc, ond Wolstenholme Byrig æt Martin Hundred, wǣron begotten eal āƿeġen. Iacobustūn wæs spāreliċ ne for eorlīc wituung tō onlūtanly warnung fram a Virginisc Indisc bearweorcere. Þǣr ƿæs nēanlēac genōg ǣr tō spredenne þæt ƿord tō þām utlendan.

Of sē 6,000 þeode hƿo comen tō sē sętl betƿix 1608 ond 1624, ǣnliċ 3,400 ābiden.

Lætramest ġēares æf headfodburg (1624-1699)[adiht | adiht fruman]

On 1699, sēo colonus headfodburg æf Uirginia þǣre Landgebūnes becuman Ƿillamesbyrg.

On þone 1624, Cynin Iames ġetēoƿode þā Uirginiæ Compansȳ charter, ond Uirginiæ ƿearð ārēowe hlāford-rīċe. Þēah þe þā ǣnlǣcunge, sē bearod ēac ġeƿeox. Tīen geār later, on þone 1634, be þæs Cyninges Carl ǣƿelȳsende, sē bearod ƿæs ġeƿeȳned in þā ōðer ehta scīr Uirginiæ, on ȝesƿīðe liċnisse tō þǣre ƿīsdōmes þe man pracod on Englalande. Iacobustūn ƿæs geloċod in Iaccobus Ciȝie Scīre, snottor nama þā "Ealdrig of Iaccobusceaster", betre ācnāƿen on nūtīman tīdum sƿā Iaccobusceaster Scīr, Uirginiæ, sē folces ēaldosta scīr.

ƒideren micel ƿiðergeƿin "Indisc blācan" ġebēad in 1644. In 1646 Opechancanough ƿæs ġefangen, ond þā hē ƿæs on hrēoƿe an Englisc wæccere hine on þæt bæc ġesƿēt — ongēan tǣces — ond hine āslōƿ. Þæræfter, sē Powhatan Confederacy ongan tō recede. Opechancanough's fylƿītend ġefōrƿihte sē ærst friðcēƿde betƿeox þā Powhatan Indiȝen ond þā Englisc. Þā friðcēƿde behēoldon þā Powhatan tō feōƿolīċġe ġif onlicgende þā Englisc ond hīe þe þā tō slǣðƿlum.[1]

Ān fæderne ȝeār, on Bācones Rāpe on 1676, Iacobustūn ƿæs ġebrand ond æt bētan. Þurh his hēaþeǵenes, þā Uirginiæ lǣdǣ̄nsetl ærest getǣmde æt Ealdormann ƿillem Berkeley bī nēahlieǵendem Green Spring Getimbre, ond siððan æt Middle Getimbre, þā þe ƿæs ƿeonend ƿeorodlīc gemǣnscipe innland on þā UirginiæPeninsula, ymbe ēahta mīlum āfrēosan.

Hƿonne þæt hūs onǣlēoƿed eft on 1698, þis sīðe ungelimplice, þā lǣdǣ̄nsetl eft ƿāƿode tō Middle Getimbre ond ƿæs mæðe ġenēodliċt on þā nīƿan ƿyrhtaƿearas of þæt Cniht Mīċel & Marȳ Colleȝ, þe wæs ġeseted æfter þæt heafod-bēod of 1693.[2] Sƿā þonne æfter ƿǣðre ġereordene on Iacobustūn eft, þæt ġeaƿræge of þæt bearod ƿæs geƿeȳned stæððilīċt tō Middle Getimbre on 1699.[3] Sē tūn ƿæs ġenæmd ƿilliamsburg, tō wurðiende þā rīciend mōnarc, Cynin ƿilhelm III. Ān þǣs hēafod-bēodes ond "Ēaldorpalas" ƿæron ēaðer ætȳned þær in þā niƿan ȳƿren.[4]

Postheadfodburg[adiht | adiht fruman]

Americanisce Ingefeoht[adiht | adiht fruman]

Reġebyrd æf Iacobustūn[adiht | adiht fruman]

Fruman[adiht | adiht fruman]

  1. Historic Jamestowne – Powhatan NPS.gov
  2. History of the College of William & Mary
  3. Jamestown Colony History.com
  4. How Jamestown Got Us Started American Heritage