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Knowledge : Lārcræft[adiht | adiht fruman]

Lárcræft is knowledge or erudition in general.

  • -cunnung - knowledge derived from exploration, investigation.
  • -cræft - a skill or knowledge that is performed in practical applications.
  • -lār f - a whole body of knowledge; it is kept for reference and teaching.
  • Sprǣccræft - Linguistics (language-skill/knowledge). (Oþþe Sprǣccunnung, sēo Taalkunde on Fresisc.) (neologismus)
  • Stæfcræft - Grammar (B&T)
  • Stefncunnung -Phonology (neologismus)
  • Stefncræft - Phonetics (neologismus)
  • Stefnincel - Phoneme (neologismus)
  • Stǣr - History
  • Ƿordstǣrcræft - Etymology; oþþe Ƿordstǣr
  • Ƿordbān n etymon
  • Hlīepgear (?) - Leap year (cf mōnan hlȳp; "ON. hlaup-ār is presumably, like other terms of the Roman calendar, imitated from English." -OED)

Science : Cunnung[adiht | adiht fruman]

In Modern English, science may be derived from the Latin word for knowledge, but regarding the physical sciences, such as physics or astronomy, it means only a specific kind of knowledge, that knowledge that can be derived from investigation, specifically repeatable experimentation. Lárcræft is knowledge or erudition in general. Thus to translate "science" as lárcræft is an error when applied to the "hard" sciences.

Þǣr sind:

  • Cunnung [] f (-e/-a) knowledge; trial, probation, experience; contact, carnal knowledge
  • cunnian1 [] wv/t2 w.g. or a. to search into, try, test, seek for, explore, investigate; experience; have experience of, to make trial of; know
  • OED:
cunning [Verbal n. from CAN v.1 (inf. OE. cunnan, ME. cunnen, connen) in its earlier sense ‘to know’, hence orig. = L. scientia, sapientia. Not recorded in OE. (which had however oncunning accusation, from the deriv. oncunnan to accuse), but like the cognate CUNNING a., common since the 14th c.]
1. Knowledge; learning, erudition. Obs.
  • cȳððu [] f (-e/-a) 1. knowledge of, familiarity or acquaintance with, (1) a matter, subject, etc.,
  • cræft [] m (-es/-as) physical strength, might, courage; science, skill, art, ability, talent, virtue, excellence; trade, handicraft, calling; work or product of art, Hex; trick, fraud, deceit; machine, instrument; in pl great numbers, hosts?
  • lār [] f (-e/-a) lore, learning, science, art of teaching, preaching, doctrine; study; precept, exhortation, advice, instigation; history, story; cunning - ac lārcræft is knowledge; erudition - ic sēce mā þǣrof.
  • rīmcræft1 [] m (-es/-as) arithmetic, reckoning, computation, the science of numbers; calendar
  • getælcircul [] m (-es/-as) cycle, series
  • getælcræft [] m (-es/-as) arithmetic
  • ƿoruldƿīsdōm [] m (-es/-as) worldly wisdom, science
  • cȳððecræft (neologism) - skill in knowledge, knowledge as a trade.
  • Ac, ic fand on tramete 1240 of Bosƿorðes ƿordbēc:
"Þā mīne þēoƿas sind ƿīsdōmas and cræftas (sciences and arts)." - Mæg bēon, þæt ƿīsdōmcræft þæt betste is?
Ƿē habbaþ rīmcræft sƿā "science of numbers," þā for hƿōn ne cūðe bēon þæt?

Sciences : Cunnunga[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • -cunnung f - knowledge derived from exploration, investigation.
  • -cræft m - a skill or knowledge that is performed in practical applications.
  • -lār f - a whole body of knowledge (which is kept for reference and teaching).


1. agriculture - eorþtilþ
2. biology - līfcunnung

  • þæt fiðerfōtnīeten four-footed animal
  • (fēoƿerfēte, fēoƿerfōte, fēoƿerfōtede - four-footed)

3. geometry - eorþmet

  • ƿecg m triangle
  • angle - bȳge m, hwemm m, hyrne m, sceat m, scēata m
  • circle - circul m, trendel m
  • square - fiðerscyte, féoƿerscyte (adj)
  • boga m arc
  • līne f line, rope
  • spann m measure (line segment?)
  • bred [] n (-es/-u, breodu) surface; board, plank; table, tablet; þā stǣnenan bredu the tables of stone; lytle hūs of bredum small houses with tables, eating-houses, taverns (rectangle?)
  • rihtebred [] n (-es/-u) measure, rule, square, an instrument for measuring
  • stedeƿang2 [] m (-es/-as) field, plain, a plain, open place

4. logic - flitcræft

5. Mathematics - Possibly mæþemætic, from the Greek/Latin origin.

  • calculate (verb) - rīman
  • cartesian coordinates - hǣrarōd
  • complete in number - full adj
  • compute (verb) - rīman
  • count (verb) - rīman
  • denominator - undergetæl (neologism)
  • derivative - ofcumende, ofgangendlic, ofgangende, sciriendlic
  • dimension - gemet n (size determined by measurement)
  • distribution - gedāl n (a division, distribution, separation, parting)
  • divide (verb)
    • tōdǣlan - divide one number by another (tōdǣlþ twelf þurh fīf)
    • sciftan (divide, separate into shares)
    • dǣlan
    • gemiddlian (divide, separate in the middle)
  • division - tōdǣlung f
  • divisor - dǣlend m
  • entire - full adj
  • fraction - dāl n (division, allotment, portion), dǣl m (deal, lot, portion)
  • multiplication - manigfealdung, gemanigfealdung f
  • multiply (verb) - gemanigfealdian, manigfealdan
  • negative - ƿiþsacendlic
  • number - getæl n (6, 7, etc.), rīm
  • number (verb) - rīman
    • countless number, immense number or quantity - ungerīm n
    • large number - ƿorn m
  • numerator - ofergetæl (neologism)
  • portion - dǣl m (deal, lot, portion); also as some (as opposed to none; dǣl regnes - some rain)
  • quantity - andefn f (quantity, amount)
  • remainder - lǣfung
  • subtract - dōn of, onƿeg ātēon; (ān lǣs tƿēntig - 19)
  • variable - aƿendedlīc (new use of authentic word)
  • whole - full adj
  • mārafeald n multiple (neologism)
  • lǣssadǣl m factor (neologism)
  1. Weather - ƿeder n
    1. cloud - ƿolcen n
    2. lightning - līget m
    3. rain - regn m
    4. thunder - þunor m

6. linguistics - sprǣccræft m

  1. case - cāsus m
    1. accusative - ƿrēgendlic
    2. dative - forgifendlic
    3. genitive - āgniendlic
    4. instrumental - tōllic [neologism]
    5. nominative - nemniendlic
  2. letter - bōcstæf m
    1. consonant - samodsƿēgend m
    2. vowel - cleopigend
      1. diphthong - tƿilic cleopigend m
  3. linguist - sprǣcleorniend m [neologism]
    1. linguistic purist - clǣnsprǣcling m
      1. linguistic purism - clǣnsprǣcscipe m
  4. number - rīm m
    1. dual - tƿifealdlic
    2. plural - manigfealdlic
    3. singular - ānfealdlic
  5. person - hād m
    1. first - forma
    2. second - ōþer
    3. third - þridda
  6. word - ƿord n
    1. adjective - tōgeīecendlic n
    2. adverb - bīƿord n
    3. conjunction - fēgung f
    4. interjection - betƿuxālegednes f
    5. noun - nama m
    6. preposition - foresetednis f
    7. pronoun - bīnama s
    8. verb - ƿeorcƿord n [neologism]
      1. mood - gefrēdness f [new usage]
        1. imperative - hātendlic
        2. indicative - geƿisslic
        3. subjunctive - ungeƿisslic

Skills : Cræftas[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • - cræft m - a skill, craft
  • - cræftig - skilful
  • - ƿīse f - way, manner, technique


1. Music - (a skill) sƿēgcræft m; (the sound itself) sƿēg m

  1. voice - stefn f
  2. instrument - (a tool) tōl m, (specifically for music) sƿēgtōl m [neologism]
    1. percussion instrument - clatrung f (lit. "clattering" but used for anything that "makes a clattering")
    2. stringed instrument - saltere m (with a more specific meaning of "lyre")
      1. harp - hearpe wf
      2. lyre - saltere m

Life[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • life - līf n
  • biological - līfig [neologism]
  • biology - līfcunnung f [neologism]
  • animal - dēor n
  • creature - ƿiht n
  • plant - ƿyrt sf, plante wf
  • to live - libban 3w
  • to die - cƿelan 4s
  • to beget - acennan 1w
  • to kill - ofslēan 6s
  • water - ƿæter n

-See also: Sciences:biology

Animals[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • animal - dēor n
  • invertebrate - hrycgbānlēas dēor n [new phrase]
  • carnivore - flǣscetend m [new word]
    • carnivorous - flǣscetende m [new word]
  • omnivore - manigetend m [new word]
    • omnivorous - manigetende [new word]
  • herbivore - ƿyrtetend m [new word]
    • herbivorous - ƿyrtetende [new word]
  1. invertebrate - hrycgbānlēas dēor [new phrase]
    1. insect - seoxsceanced ƿyrm m [new phrase], ƿyrm [see note for ƿyrm under reptile]
    2. jellyfish - sǣbēo irreg. f (indeclinable in singular but weak in plural) [new word]
    3. shellfish - sciellfisc m
    4. starfish - steorrfisc m [new word]
    5. worm - ƿyrm m
      1. flatworm - efenƿyrm m [new word]
      2. vermiform - ƿyrmlic
      3. flatworm
  2. vertebrate - hrycgbāned dēor
    1. amphibian - tūƿuniend m [new word]
    2. bird - bridd m, fugol m
    3. fish - fisc m (this word was historically used for more or less any sea creature, but it will do for scientific purposes, too)
    4. mammal - sycedēor
      1. cow - cū f
        1. ox - oxa wm
      2. dog - hund m, dogge m
        1. fox - fox m
        2. wolf - ƿulf m
      3. hare - hara wm
        1. rabbit - holhara wm [new word - disputed]
    5. reptile - ƿyrm m [very general word used for insects, worms, etc. too], slincend m
      1. lizard - āðexe wf
      2. snake, serpent - snaca wm, nǣdre wf

Body parts and other terms[adiht | adiht fruman]

  1. behaviour - gebǣre sn
    1. tame - tam adj
    2. wild - ƿild adj
  2. limb - limm sn
    1. arm - earm sn
      1. hand - hand irreg. f [gen. dat. sg. handa]
        1. finger - finger sm
          1. fingernail - hand-nægl sm
          2. nail - nægl sm
            1. claƿ - clā
    2. leg - sceanca wm
      1. foot - fōt i-mut. m [gen. dat. sg. nom. acc. pl. fēt]
        1. toe - tāhe wf
          1. toenail - fōt-nægl sm [nw. based on "hand-nægl" pattern]
    3. neck - hals sm, sƿeora wm, hnecca wm
      1. throat - ceole wf, þrotu sf
      2. head - hēafod sm,
        1. brain - brægn sn
          1. cerebral cortex - brægnes gen sg sn rind sf
        2. ear - ēara wn
        3. eye - ēage wn
          1. eyebrow - brū sf, ēaghyll sm
          2. eyelid - ēaghring sm, ēaghlid sn, brǣw sm
          3. eyelash - ēaghǣr sn [nw needed because there is no distinct word for eyelash]
        4. skull - hēafodbān sm, hēafodbolla wm, hēafodpanne wf, brægnpanne wf, brægnloca wm
  3. reproduction - see Life:Reproduction

Death and disease[adiht | adiht fruman]

  1. disease - ādl sf
    1. virus - clēofanƿyrm sm [nw the creature itself], clēofangund sn [nw the disease that the creature causes]
  2. disability - uncræft sm [nw]

Plants and fruit[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • plant - ƿyrte wf
  • root - ƿyrte wf, moru f (especially edible roots), fæstness f
  • flower - blotsma wm
  • to grow - ƿeaxan 7s
  • to flourish, to flower - blōƿan 7s
  1. grass - græs sn
  2. tree - trēoƿ sn, bēam sm [very general word used also for logs, crosses, planks, etc.]
    1. fruit tree - ƿæstbǣre adj trēo sn

Reproduction and sexuality[adiht | adiht fruman]

  1. birth - birþ / beorþ sf
    1. to bear - beran 4s, cennan 1w
    2. to breed - tīeman 1w
  2. reproduction - cennung f
  3. gender, sex - gecynd n
    1. female - ƿīflic/ƿīfisc
    2. male - ƿerlic/ƿerisc
  4. genitals - gecyndlimm n
  5. kind, kin - cynn n, gecynd n [note that this word is also used for gender]
  6. sexuality - gecyndischād m [new word]
    1. bisexual - tƿigecyndisc [new word]
    2. heterosexual - onġēanġecyndisc/ōðergecyndisc [new word]
    3. homosexual - ilcgecyndisc [new word]
    4. transgender - ġeondġecyndisc [new word]
  7. sperm, seed - sǣd n
  8. to lie with, to have sex [of human] - licgan 4s mid

Technology : Searucræft[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • technology as a science - searucræft (technological skill or knowledge: this is not a neologism.)
  • technology as a device - searu n (that which is contrived with art, a machine, engine, fabric: this is not a neologism.)

(Following are mostly NEW words.)

Automotive - Selfgāndliċ[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • Automobile - se selfgānd (self-goer, roughly cognate to the origin of "auto-mobile")
  • Car - se ƿæȝn (wagon, cart, cognate to German "wagen")
  • Clutch - sēo grāp (grip)
  • Cylinder - þæt fȳrþyrel (fire hole/tube)
  • Efficiency - sēo cræftfulnes (skillfulness)
  • Engine - se mihta (powerer)
External combustion engine - se ūtƿeard ȝelīeȝendmihta (outward-lighting powerer)
Internal combustion engine - se inƿeard ȝelīeȝendmihta (inward-lighting powerer)
  • Exhaust - se dism (smoke, vapor, fume)
  • Horsepower - sēo horsmiht
  • Pollution - se āfȳlþ (filth)
Air pollution - se lyftfȳlþ (air filth)
  • Pressure - þæt ȝeþring
  • Thermal efficiency - sēo hǣtecræftfulnes (heat skillfulness)
  • Torque - sēo spinmiht (spin power)
  • Transmission - se ȝearƿebox (equipment box; a "toothed wheel" is what ȝearƿe evolved into)
Variable-speed transmission - se mæniȝfeald sƿiftfulnes ȝearƿebox (manifold/various speed gear box)

Mechanics[adiht | adiht fruman]

  1. mechanics - ƿeorccræft sm, searucræft sm [ambiguous - can mean "deceptive art")
    1. cleverness, ingenuity - orþanc sn/m
    2. device, machine - searu sn
    3. ingenious - searulic
    4. mechanical - mechanisc, ƿeorcræftlic [nw], searucræftlic [nw]
    5. system - (manner, order, or pattern (of doing something)) endebyrdness sf, (a gathering if parts working together) dǣla gæderung sf [lit. "gathering of parts"]

Warfare[adiht | adiht fruman]

  1. Army - here sm, þrēat sm
    1. Air force - lyfthere m [nw lit. "air-army"]
    2. Land force - landhere sm
    3. Navy - sciphere sm
  2. War - ƿīg n
    1. Warfare - ƿīg n, ƿīgnoþ m, ƿīgþracu f, ƿīgrǣden f
    2. Battle - gūþ f
    3. State of war - unfriþ, ƿīgræden, ƿīgnoþ, orleghƿīl

Positioning, Tracking, and Strategy[adiht | adiht fruman]

  1. Cartesian coordinates - hǣrarōd

Land[adiht | adiht fruman]

  1. Military equipment - heregeatu f, ƿiggetaƿa f pl

Sea[adiht | adiht fruman]

  1. Navy - sǣhere m
    1. Boat - bāt m
      1. Sailboat - segelbāt m
        1. Sail - segel m
      2. Ship - scip n
      3. Warship - ƿīgascip n
  2. Water - ƿæter n
    1. Ocean - geofen n
    2. Sea - sǣ m
  3. Weaponry - ƿǣpnas m plural
    1. Weapon - ƿǣpen m
      1. Torpedo - fȳrramm m

Air[adiht | adiht fruman]

  1. Air force - lyfthere m
    1. Aircraft - lyftcræft m
      1. Aeroplane - lyftƿægn m
      2. Aeroplane carrier - lyftcræftbora m [compare sƿeordbora (swordbearer)]
      3. Helicopter - spinnendfiþerecræft n
      4. Bomber - fȳrægbora
    2. Airman - lyftman m
      1. Airman (of the army) - lyftrinc m
      2. Pilot (of an aircraft) - lyftcræftstēorend m [maybe just shorten it to "stēorend m" when it is understood that it is an aircraft pilot?]
    3. Weapon - ƿǣpen m
      1. Airstrike - lyftrǣs m
      2. Bomb - fȳræg n
      3. Gun - scēotendsearu n
        1. Bullet - stingclyƿe m
      4. Missile launcher - scutelsearu n
        1. Missile - scutel m
  2. Sky - heofon m, sƿegl n
    1. Air - lyft f
    2. Cloud - ƿolcen m
      1. Mist - mist m
    3. Weather - geƿidre n
      1. Storm - ƿeder n, storm m

Communication[adiht | adiht fruman]

Transport[adiht | adiht fruman]

  1. Outer space - rodor
    1. Spaceship - rodorscip n
    2. Astronaut - rodorlāca m

Physics/Chemistry[adiht | adiht fruman]

  1. Mass - micelnes f
    1. Matter - andƿeorc sn, dāh sm
    2. Particle - grot sn
  2. Molecule - gemot sn {"group of atoms"]
  3. Atom - (ascære) mot sn
    1. Nucleus - cyrnel sm/n (lit. "kernel" cf. German], (ascæres) motes heorte wf [lit. "atom's heart"]
    2. Proton - behlæst steorrincel n ("little star, positive charge" This fits its technical definition.)
    3. Neutron - unbehlæst steorrincel n ("little star, neutral charge" This fits its technical definition.)
    4. Electron - spærcincel n ("little spark, negative charge." This fits its technical definition.) glær, amber? --> mōtung.
  4. Isotope - elmot n ("strange atom" with a strange number of (neutrally charged) neutrons. This fits its technical definition.) The Greek word means "same place", perhaps efensteall, although this no longer fit the word's current definition.
  5. Ion - elmote f ("strange atom" with a strange number of (negatively charged) electrons. This fits its technical definition.) The Greek word means "moving thing", the present participle of ienai go, although this no longer fit the word's current definition.

Other technical words: getrum, blōma, clott

  • iso- = efn- (literal translation from Greek)

Electronics & Computing[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • (Computer) server - spærclecræfthelpend m
  • Electricity - spærclecræft m
  • Electronics - spærcleƿeorc
  • Electronic device - spærclesearu
  • Electrical current - spærclestrēam m
  • Stream of electrons - spærcla strēam m
  • Electronic computer - spærcletelle f
  • Computing, computer science - spærcletellung f
  • World Wide Webb - Ƿoruldƿīde Ƿebb n
  • Website - Ƿebbsīde f

Medicine[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • medicine (skill) - lǣċe-cræft m
  • medicine (remedy) - lǣċe-dōm m
  • body - bodiȝ n, līċ n
    • head - hēafod n'
      • ear - ēare wn
      • face - and-ƿlita wm', and-sȳn f
        • eye - ēage wn
        • mouth - mūþ m
          • gum - tōða m gen pl flǣsc n
          • lip - lippa wm
          • palate - gōma wm, mūðes m gen sg hrōf m
          • tongue - tunge wf
          • tooth - tōþ m i-mutation
        • nose - nasu f
          • nostril - næs-þyrel n
    • leg - sċeanca wm
      • foot - fōt m i-mutation
      • shin - fōt-sċeanca wm