Pulgara Cyning

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(Edlǣded of Pulgara Cyningas)
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Simeon II Pulgara Cyning

Pulgara Cyningas be missenlicum titlum ricsoden on Pulgarum of þæs rīces forma staþle (se hēt man þæt Forma Pulgara Rīce) in 681 oð thame dæg þan ahweafen Communistas þone cynedōm in 1946. In his ylde þolede þisne cynedōm twone tīdas under elelendiscum oferhlāfordscipe: healf ōðre hund geara unde þæm Constantinipolis Rīce and ælmæst fīf hundred wintra þæs Oþomaniscan Rīces. Early Pulgarisca rīcan hycgð man benyttedon þone naman Khan, later knyaz for scortum tīde, and æfterwearde tsar.

Tsar seo titul (se is of þæm Wendiscum spræce þæs Læden wordes Caesar (se is cāsere), and Pulgare nām þis word for hiera bregum for Simeon I, æfter his mæran sige ofer þæm Constantinopolis Rīce in 913. Eall Simeones æftergengan nyttedon þās title oð Pulgrara rīces feall þæm Turciscum Bregum in 1396.

Æfter þe þā Pulgare abrācon of þæm Turcum in 1878, cēas hiera forma cyning Alexander I þe his titul biþ knyaz, ac his cynedōm næs sundorrīce in Turcena ēagum oþ 1908 and on þæm dæge abannede Ferdinand Alexandres sunu þe he biþ Tsar, se is 'Cyning'. Se nama tsar abād under Ferdinande his ierfum Boris III and Simeon II.

Oððæt ðe tsar was onwendode "cāsere" in þæm Forma and Ōðrum Pulgara Rīcum Empires, in þissum ylde hæfþ man onwended þæt word "cyning".

In þara fēam alibbendum Middelyldra Pulgariscum cynelicum bōcum, healdon Pulgarena Cyningas mid langum titlum tobysene "In Criste se Wealdende se Trēowe Cāsere and Autocrat of Eallra Pulgara" oððe gelicum þingum, and oft ēac "... and Rōmwara, Crēaca, or Vlacha".

Pulgara rīcena getæl[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

This list does not include the mythical Bulgar rulers and the rulers of Old Great Bulgaria listed in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans as well as unsuccessful claimants to the throne who are not generally listed among the Bulgarian monarchs.

Gelicnes Titul Nama Rīce Glēsing/Dēaþ

First Bulgarian Empire (681–1018)[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

Dulo cynn (681–753)
Asparukh of Bulgaria.JPG Khan Asparukh 681–700 Kubrating, se ricsode on þæm Eald Micel Pulgaraland. Æfter his sige æt Ongal Beadwe in 680 sceap he Pulgara land on Europan. Forþferde in 700 in gūþ wiþ Khazaras.[1]
Tervel of Bulgaria.jpg Khan Tervel 700–721 Fōn þā titul 'Caesar' in 705.[2][3] Tervel sæd man in his dæge wæs Europan Hælend forþæm þe Pulgare slōgon Arabas in þære Constantinopolis Besetnesse. Forþferde in 721.[4]
Khan Kormesiy 721–738 Deaþ unbekenned.[5]
Khan Sevar 738–753 Se endmesta rica þæs Dulo cynnes. Forþferde oððe was ahwearf in 753.[6]
Vokil clan (753–762)
Khan Kormisosh 753–756 Floces unfriþ ongann. Ahwearf in 756.[7]
Khan Vinekh 756–762 Gemorð in 762.[8]
Ugain cynn (762–765)
Khan Telets 762–765 Gemorð in 765.[9]
Ne of þæm cynecynne (765–766)
Khan Sabin 765–766 Of Wendiscum gebyrde hycgþ man. Ahwearf be Folcesræde in 766, fliemede to Constantinopolis.[10]
Vokil clan (766)
Khan Umor 766 Ricsode 40 niht. Ahwearf in 766 and fled to the Byzantine Empire.[11]
Non-dynastic (766–768)
Khan Toktu 766–767 Killed in the forests of the Danube in 767 by the opposition.[12]
Khan Pagan 767–768 Murdered by his servants in the region of Varna.[13]
Krum/Dulo dynasty (768–997)
Seal of Telerig.jpg Emperor Telerig 768–777 Son of Tervel.Fled to Constantinople in 777 and baptised.[14]
Khan Kardam 777–803 End of the internal crisis. Stabilization and consolidation of the country. Unknown date of death.[15]
Krum33.jpg Casere Krum 803–814 Lof mid Pliska Beadwe þærin feall Nikephoros I Constantinopolis Cāsere, and ēac þe he geaf Pulgarum hiera ǣrrostan gewriten ǣ. Forþferde in his bedde.[16]
Omurtag1.jpg Micel Casere (Kanasubigi),[17]
Ruler of the many Bulgarians[18]
Omurtag 814–831 Mǣre þe he timbrode micel and ednīwede þone lēodweard ac he persecuted Cristenmenn.[19]
Khan Malamir 831–836 Omurtages þridde and iengsta sunu. Forþferde in his bedde æt geongum ylde.[20]
Khan Presian I 836–852 Ælmæst eall Mæcedonia þæt land wæs brōhted in Pulgaraland.[21]
Brego (Knyaz) Boris I 852–889 He brohtede þa Pulgare to Criste and bannede þe Eald Ciricewendisc]] biþ þære cirican and þæs rīces ambehtsprǣc.[22] Abdicated in 883, Forþferde on 2 May 902, æt 80 wintra ylde.[23] Proclaimed a Saint.
Brego Vladimir 889–893 Borises I ieldsta sunu. Tried to restore Tengriism. Ahwearf and blinded be his fæder in 893.[24]
Brego & Tsar
Pulgara and Rōmwara Cāsere (be crafunge)[25]
Pulgara Cāsere (be rihte)[26]
Simeon I 893–927 Borisses Þridde sunu, he gang to weordenne prēost ac drifen on þone cynestōl be þæm Preslaf Ræd. Pulgaraland areccede his hēastan be lofe and in landscipe. Gylden yld þara Pulgare. Forþferde of heorte attack on 27 May 927, æt 63 wintrum.[27]
Casere
Pulgara Cāsere[28]
Petar I 927–969 Second son of Simeon I. His 42-year cynedōm is þæt lengste rīce in Pulgara stǣre. Abdicated in 969 and weard munuc and forþferde on 30 January 970.[29] Proclaimed a Saint.
Boris II.jpg Casere Boris II 970–971 Petares ieldsta sunu.. Dethroned be þæm Constantinopolis Rīce in 971 and geslēan in unfære be Pulgariscum mearcweardum in 977 þan he cw ōm eft on his agen land.[30]
Roman BG.JPG Casere Roman 977–991 (997) Second son of Petar I. Castrated by the Byzantines but escaped to Bulgaria in 977. Captured in battle by the Byzantines in 991 and Forþferde in prison in Constantinople in 997.[31]
Cometopuli dynasty (997–1018)
Samuil of bolgaria reconstruction.jpg Casere
Pulgara Cāsere[32]
Samuel 997–1014 Co-ruler and general under Roman between 976 and 997. Officially proclaimed Emperor of Bulgaria in 997. Forþferde of a heart attack on 6 October 1014, aged 69–70.[33]
Casere Gavril Radomir 1014–1015 Eldest son of Samuel, crowned on 15 October 1014. Murdered by his cousin Ivan Vladislav in August 1015.[34]
Casere Ivan Vladislav 1015–1018 Arones sunu and Samueles nefa. Gesl ēan æt sæcce be þære Dyrrachium Besetnesse.[35] His death brought the end of the First Bulgarian Empire which was annexed by the Byzantine Empire.

Proclaimed monarchs during the Byzantine rule (1040–1041 / 1072)[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

Cometopuli dynasty
Peter II of Bulgaria.jpg Casere Petar II Delyan 1040–1041 Claimed to have been descendent of Gavril Radomir. Led an unsuccessful uprising against Byzantine rule.[36]
Konstantin Bodin.jpg Casere Petar III 1072 Named Constantine Bodin and Descendent of Samuel, he was proclaimed Emperor of Bulgaria after the sainted emperor Petar I during the Uprising of Georgi Voiteh.[37] Between 1081 and 1101 he ruled as Duklja Cyning.

Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1396)[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

Asen dynasty
Casere Petar IV 1185–1190 Named Theodore, he was proclaimed Emperor of Bulgaria as Petar IV during the successful Uprising of Asen and Petar. In 1190 he gave the throne to his younger brother.[38]
Casere Ivan Asen I 1190–1196 Younger brother of Petar IV. A successful general, he ruled until 1196 when he was murdered by his cousin Ivanko.[39]
Casere Petar IV 1196–1197 Murdered in 1197.[38]
NHMB-Anthrolopogical-reconstruction-of-the-head-of-Tsar-Kaloyan-by-Prof.Yordan-Yordanov.jpg Casere
Pulgara and Vlacha Casere
Kaloyan 1197–1207 Third brother of Asen and Petar. Expanded Bulgaria and concluded a Union with the Catholic Church. Murdered by plotters during the siege of Salonica.[40]
Seal of Boril.jpg Casere Boril 1207–1218 Son of a sister of Kaloyan. Ahwearf and blinded in 1218.[41]
Ivan-asen-II-zograf-portrait.jpg Casere
Emperor of the Bulgarians and the Greeks[42]
Ivan Asen II 1218–1241 Eldest son of Ivan Asen I. The Second Bulgarian Empire reached its apogee. Forþferde of natural death on 24 June 1241, aged 46–47.[43]
Casere Kaliman Asen I 1241–1246 Son of Ivan Asen II. Born in 1234, he Forþferde or was poisoned in 1246, aged 12.[44]
Michael-Asen-Kastoria.jpg Casere Michael II Asen 1246–1256 Son of Ivan Asen II. Murdered by his cousin Kaliman.[45]
Casere Kaliman Asen II 1256 Murdered in 1256.[46]
Casere Mitso Asen 1256–1257 Fled to the Nicaean Empire in 1261.[47]
NHM-BG-photoKonstantinTih1.jpg Casere
In Christ the Lord Faithful Emperor and Autocrat of the Bulgarians[48]
Constantine I 1257–1277 Bolyar of Skopie. Murdered in 1277 by the peasant leader Ivaylo.[49]
Casere Ivan Asen III 1279–1280 Eldest son of Mitso Asen. Fled to Constantinople with the treasury.[50]
Non-dynastic
Casere Ivaylo 1277–1280 Leader of a major peasant uprising. Fled to the Golden Horde but was murdered by the Mongol Khan Nogai.[36]
Terter dynasty (1280–1292)
Casere George Terter I 1280–1292 Bolyar of Cherven. Fled to the Byzantine Empire in 1292, Forþferde Bulgaria in 1308–1309.[51]
Non-dynastic (1292–1300)
Casere Smilets 1292–1298 Bolyar of Kopsis. Murdered or Forþferde of natural death in 1298.[52]
Casere Chaka 1299–1300 Son of the Mongol Nogai Khan. Ahwearf and strangled in prison in 1300.[53]
Terter dynasty (1300–1322)
Silver coin of Theodore Svetoslav.png Casere Theodore Svetoslav 1300–1321 Son of George Terter I. Spent his youth as a hostage in the Golden Horde. His rule marked a revival of Bulgaria. Forþferde of natural death in the late 1321, aged 50–55.[54]
Casere George Terter II 1321–1322 Son of Theodore Svetoslav. Forþferde of natural death in the late 1322.[55]
Shishman dynasty (1323–1396)
Casere Michael III Shishman 1323–1330 Bolyar of Vidin. Mortally wounded in the battle of Velbazhd on 28 July 1330 against the Serbs.[56]
Casere Ivan Stephen 1330–1331 Son of Michael III Shishman. Ahwearf in March 1331 and fled to Serbia.[57] Might have Forþferde in 1373.
Ivan Alexander.jpg Casere
In Christ the Lord Faithful Emperor and Autocrat of all Bulgarians[58] and Greeks[59]
Ivan Alexander 1331–1371 Bolyar of Lovech. Descended of the Asen, Terter and Shishman dynasties. Second Golden Age of Bulgarian culture. Forþferde of natural death on 17 February 1371, leaving Bulgaria divided among his sons.[56]
53 IoSisiman.JPG Casere
In Christ the Lord Faithful Emperor and Autocrat of all Bulgarians and Greeks[60]
Ivan Shishman 1371–1395 Fourth son of Ivan Alexander. Beheaded by the Ottomans on 3 June 1395.[61]
Ivan Sratsimir portrait 1.JPG Casere
Emperor of the Bulgarians[62]
Ivan Sratsimir 1356–1396 Third son of Ivan Alexander. Ruled in Vidin. Captured by the Ottomans in 1396 and imprisoned in Bursa where he was strangled.[63]
Tsar Constantine II 1397–1422 Son of Ivan Sratsimir (Ivan Sracimir) of Bulgaria by Anna, daughter of prince Nicolae Alexandru of Wallachia. He was crowned co-emperor by his father in or before 1395.

Pulgaraland þæt Bregorīce and Pulgaraland þæt Cynerīce (1878–1946)[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

Battenberg Hūs
Alexander I of Bulgaria by Dimitar Karastoyanov.jpg Brego Alexander I 29 April 1879 – 7 September 1886 Abdicated due to Russian pressure. Forþferde on 23 October 1893 in Graz.
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Hūs
Zar Ferdinand Bulgarien.jpg Brego/Tsar Ferdinand I 7 July 1887 – 3 October 1918 Became Tsar after the official proclamation of independence on 22 September 1908. Abdicated on 3 October 1918 after the defeat in World War I. Forþferde on 10 September 1948 in Coburg.
BASA-3K-7-342-28-Boris III of Bulgaria.jpeg Tsar Boris III 3 October 1918 – 28 August 1943 Forþferde on 28 August 1943 in unclear circumstances.
Simeon II of Bulgaria.jpg Tsar Simeon II 28 August 1943 – 15 September 1946 Monarchy abolished by the Communists. He þegnede swa Pulgaralandes Forma Þegn betwuh 24 July 2001 and 17 August 2005.

Ūtwearda hlencas[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

References[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  1. Andreev, p. 19
  2. Andreev, p. 23
  3. Whittow, p. 273
  4. Andreev, p. 27
  5. Andreev, p. 29
  6. Andreev, p. 30
  7. Andreev, p. 32
  8. Andreev, p. 33
  9. Andreev, p. 35
  10. Andreev, p. 36
  11. Andreev, p. 38
  12. Andreev, p. 39
  13. Andreev, p. 40
  14. Andreev, p. 42
  15. Andreev, p. 44
  16. Andreev, pp. 53–54
  17. Tarnovo Inscription of Khan Omurtag (Russian). Begieten on 14 March 2011.
  18. Andreev, p. 62
  19. Andreev, pp. 61–62
  20. Andreev, pp. 67–68
  21. Andreev, p. 70
  22. Whittow, p. 284
  23. Andreev, pp. 85–86
  24. Andreev, p. 89
  25. Stephenson, p. 23
  26. Stephenson, p. 22
  27. Andreev, pp. 103–104
  28. Whittow, p. 292
  29. Andreev, p. 112
  30. Andreev, p. 118
  31. Andreev, p. 121-122
  32. Whittow, p. 297
  33. Andreev, p. 127
  34. Andreev, pp. 129–130
  35. Andreev, p. 133
  36. 36.0 36.1 Andreev, p. 136
  37. Andreev, p. 142-143
  38. 38.0 38.1 Andreev, pp. 146–147
  39. Andreev, pp. 157–158
  40. Andreev, p. 173
  41. Andreev, p. 184
  42. Laskaris, p. 5
  43. Andreev, p. 193
  44. Andreev, p. 197
  45. Andreev, p. 205
  46. Andreev, p. 208
  47. Andreev, p. 211
  48. Ivanov, pp. 578–579
  49. Andreev, p. 229
  50. Andreev, p. 233
  51. Andreev, p. 239
  52. Andreev, p. 240
  53. Andreev, p. 244
  54. Andreev, p. 251
  55. Andreev, p. 254
  56. 56.0 56.1 Andreev, p. 263
  57. Andreev, p. 267
  58. Ivanov, p. 584
  59. Ivanov, pp. 590–591
  60. Ivanov, pp. 602–608
  61. Andreev, p. 286
  62. Miletich, L.. Daco-Romanians and their Slavic Literacy. Part II (Bulgarian). Begieten on 14 March 2011.
  63. Andreev, p. 298

Fruman[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

Þis gewrit hæfþ wordcwide on Nīwenglisce.