Late Horizon

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The Late Horizon is the last period of the High Cultures, is comprised since the victory of the Incas, guided by the auqui (Inca prince), Cusi Yupanqui, on the chancas occured in the Batalla de Yahuarpampa until the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire with the Inca Atahualpa's capture occured in Cajamarca. It coincides with the expansion and development of Tahuantinsuyo.

Denominations[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

The Late Horizon is also known as:

  • Third Cultural Horizon
  • Inca Horizon
  • Inca Empire
  • Empire of Tahuantinsuyo
  • High Culture Stage II-E

Chronology[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

Proposals[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

Author Denomination Chronology
Lanning Late Horizon 1476 - 1532
Rowe-Menzel Late Horizon 1476 - 1532
Luis G. Lumbreras Inca Empire 1430 - 1532
Ravines Late Horizon 1430 - 1532
Lavalle Late Horizon 1476 - 1532

Agreement[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

 Chronology Start date Termination date
1438 - 1532 Inca victory over the chancas, occurred at the Batalla de Yahuarpampa. .
Cajamarca takes by the Spanish and the capture of the Inca Atahualpa

Main features[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • Continental expansion, annexation of kingdoms, dominions and curacazgos.
  • Transcendence of the Andean civilization.
  • High degree of organizational development.
  • Great geographical explorations.
  • Sophistication of the Quipu (sophisticated Quipu).

Main state[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

Inca Empire

Members nations of the Inca Empire[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

Location of the member nations of the Inca Empire during the government of Atahualpa in the territories corresponding to the current countries of Bolivia, Chile and Peru.

Major nations at the time of the Spanish conquest were part of the Inca Empire are: 1

  • Pasto
  • Caranqui-quitus:
    • Quitu
    • Caranqui-Cayambe
    • Yumbo
    • Panzaleo
    • Puruha
  • Palta
  • Manta-Huancavilca
  • Cañari
  • Calva
  • Tumpi
  • Chimúes:
    • Chira
    • Piura
    • Olmo
    • Lambayeque
    • Pacasmayo
    • Chicama
    • Chimu
    • Viru
    • Chao
    • Chimbote
    • Nepeña
    • Casma
    • Huarmey
  • Ayabaca
  • Huancapampa
  • Huambo
  • Chachapoya
  • Moyopampa
  • Cajamarca
  • Huamachuco
  • Conchuco
  • Huacrachuco
  • Huayla
  • Pinco
  • Ocro
  • Huamali
  • Huanuco
  • Paramunga
  • Huaura
  • Chancay
  • Lima
  • Lurin
  • Mala
  • Huarco
  • Atavillo
  • Chinchaycocha
  • Yauyo
  • Huanca
  • Angara
  • Chocorvo
  • Choclococha
  • Vilca
  • Chanca
  • Chincha
  • Pisco
  • Ica
  • Nasca (different from the Nazca Culture)
  • Acari
  • Yauca
  • Rucana
  • Sora
  • Quechuas:
    • Yanahuara
    • Cusco
    • Quechua
    • Vilcapampa
    • Lares
    • Paucartampo
    • Cavina
    • Chilque
  • Cotapampa
  • Parinacocha
  • Aimara (Not to be confused with the Aymara nations)
  • Omasayo
  • Contisuyo (Not to be confused with Contisuyo, suyu from Tahuantinsuyo)
  • Chumpivilca
  • Cavana
  • Arequipa
  • Caruma
  • Tarata
  • Atico
  • Caraveli
  • Ocoña
  • Camana
  • Quilca
  • Tampo
  • Moquehua
  • Locumba
  • Sama
  • Aimaras:
    • Cana
    • Collagua
    • Ubina
    • Colla
    • Omasuyo
    • Lupaca
    • Collahuaya
    • Pacasa (Pacaje)
    • Caranga
    • Charca
    • Uru
    • Quillaga
  • Arica
  • Tarapaca
  • Loa
  • Cochapampa
  • Yampara
  • Chicha
  • Lipe
  • Omaguaca
  • Diaguita
  • Atacama
  • Picunche

Imperial capital[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

Cuzco, center of the four suyus, navel of the world.

Other cities or llajtas[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

El Templo del Sol en Ingapirca, Ecuador
Viviendas comunes en Tilcara, Argentina
Muros del edificio central en Pumacocha, Ayacucho
El Templo de la Luna en Pachacámac, Lima
  • Cajamarca
  • Huanucomarca
  • Inkamarca
  • Chuquiagomarca (La Paz)[1]
  • Quito
  • Arequipa
  • Huamanga
  • Pachacámac, main oracle of the central coast.
  • Puruchuco
  • Incahuasi (in Lima, Peru)
  • Incahuasi (in Huancavelica)
  • Incahuasi (in Salta, Argentina)
  • Incahuasi (in Incuyo)
  • Tumipampa (Tomebamba)
  • Cochapampa (Cochabamba)
  • Hatun Cañar (Ingapirca), ancient northern capital of the cañaris.
  • Shabalula (current Sígsig), southern capital of the cañaris.
  • Cancebí, largest and most populated city of the Manteño-Huancavilcas.
  • Jocay, (current Manta)
  • Hatun Sausa (Sausatambo)
  • Hatun Colla, ancient capital of the collas.
  • Hatun Sora, ancient capital of the soras.
  • Incallajta
  • Patallajta
  • Maucallajta (in Cusco)
  • Maucallajta (in Arequipa)
  • Pucatampu (Tambo Colorado)
  • Ollantaytampu (Ollantaytambo)
  • Huarautampu (Huarautambo)
  • Tambo Inca (in Lima)
  • Tambo Blanco
  • Tambomachay
  • Tambococha
  • Pumacocha (Intihuatana)
  • Paucarcancha
  • Chan Chan, ancient capital of Reyno Chimú.
  • Kuelap, ancient capital of the Chachapoyas
  • La Centinela, ancient main center of Chinchas[2]
  • Paredones
  • Chiquitoy viejo II[3]
  • Tilcara
  • Pucara de Aconquija
  • Chicoana (La Paya)
  • Pumpu
  • Garu
  • Caranqui, northern capital of the Caranqui nation
  • Cayambe, southern capital of the Caranqui nation
  • Uyu Uyu

Featured sovereign[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • Pachacutec, ninth Sapa Inca of Tahuantinsuyo.

Other sovereigns and prominent characters[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • Tupac Yupanqui, great conqueror and explorer.
  • Huayna Capac, took the Empire to its maximum extent.
  • Atahualpa, last Sapa Inca conquered by the Spaniards.
  • Huamán Chumo, Chimú Cápac vassal of Tahuantinsuyo.
  • Capac Apo Guamán Chaua, Incap Rantín del Huamani (province) of Wanuco.

Featured language[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • Runashimi (Rune simi)

Other languages[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • Pasto
  • Caranqui
  • Esmeraldeño
  • Tallan
  • Culli
  • Quingnam
  • Muchik
  • Chacha
  • Aimara
  • Puquina
  • Uru
  • Kunza
  • Chipaya
  • Cacán
  • Mapudungun
  • Amazonian Languages

Official religion[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • Inca religion: Inti (sun), Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqucha, Quilla (moon).

Other religions[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • Chimu religion: SI (moon), NI (sea)
  • Chanca religion: Uscovilca
  • Cult to Pariacaca
  • Worship to Pachacamac

See also[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

  • Late Intermediate
  • High Cultures
  • Time of Autonomy

References[adihtan | ādihtan fruman]

Bysen:Listaref

Previous period Current period Next period
Late Intermediate Late Horizon

1438 - 1532

1532-2017
  1. Hyslop, Sistema Vial Incaico
  2. Épocas que pasó la Huaca La Centinela
  3. Historia de Chiquitoy Viejo