Help:Hū secge ic/Speech & grammar

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Also see the list of adverbs.

Misc phrases and useful words[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • Nēan - 'approximately', 'about', 'nearly'
  • Sēo ēac - 'See also'
  • ēac X gehāten - 'also known as X'
  • tō bisene, tō bisne, for bisne - 'for example' (cf. German zum Beispiel)
  • ūtanƿearde bendas - external links
  • and so forth, etc. - and sƿā forþ, asf.
  • cuman of - 'to come from' - ic cume of Īrlande (I come from Ireland)
  • cuman + ptp - 'to get x, to become x' - þā cōm Gallicanus ēac tō Gode gebogen (then Gallicanus also got converted)
  • cuman ūp - 'to be born in a country' - ic ƿæs ūp gecumen in American (I was born in America)
  • cuman forþ - 'to be carried out successfully, succeed' - gif se āþ forþ cume (if the oath succeeds)
  • cuman + infinitive - (to express manner or purpose) - hē cōm lǣdan he came leading, came to lead; sunnan lēoma cymþ scīnan a sunbeam shall come shining or begin to shine; cōm grētan came to greet; cōm ƿeorc scēaƿian come to view the work
  • onginnan + infinitive - (to attempt to, try to; to begin to) - hē ongann cuman he attempted to come
  • dōn hƿone tō hƿǣm' - to make someone something - Rōmāne hie tō gafolgieldum dȳdon the Romans made them tributaries
  • æht besittan - to sit in council - Ealdormenn besǣton æht

Speech[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • It is time for you to go - tīd is þæt þū fēre
  • while he.... - under þǣm þe hē...; þā hƿīle þe...
  • by doing x... - mid þȳ þe.....
  • ...word for... - ...ƿord mǣnende..." (but ...word for... usually used, although it is not known if that phrase would make any sense at all to an Old English speaker, but probably ...ƿord mǣnende... would, as it literally means ...word meaning...")

Directions[adiht | adiht fruman]

Verbs of motion[adiht | adiht fruman]

Gān - to go

Faran - to travel

Adverbs of motion[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • hider - to here, hither
  • hanon - from here, hence
  • þider - to there, thither
  • þanon - from there, thence
  • gegnum - away, forwards, straight on, thither (poetic, formal word) (seems like geradeaus, DE)

Numbers[adiht | adiht fruman]

  1. ān; forma
  2. tƿēgen, tƿā, tū; ōðer
  3. þrīe, þrēo; þridda
  4. fēoƿer; fēorða
  5. fīf; fīfta
  6. six; sixta
  7. seofon; seofoða
  8. eahta; eahtoða
  9. niġon; niġoða
  10. tīene; tēoða
  11. endleofan; endleofta
  12. tƿelf; tƿelfta
  13. þrēotīene; þrēotēoða
  14. fēoƿertīene; fēoƿertēoða
  15. fīftīene; fīftēoða
  16. sixtīene; sixtēoða
  17. seofontīene; seofontēoða
  18. eahtatīene; eahtatēoða
  19. niġontīene; niġontēoða
  20. tƿentig; tƿentigoða
  21. ān and tƿentig; ān and tƿentigoða

30. þrītig; þrītigoða 40. fēoƿertig; fēoƿertigoða 50. fīftig; fīftigoða 60. sixtig; sixtigoða 70. hundseofontig; hundseofontigoða 80. hundeahtatig; hundeahtatigoða 90. hundnigontig; hundnigontigoða 100. hund, hundred, hundtēontig; hundtēontigoða 110. hundendleofantig; hundendleofantigoða 120. hundtƿelftig; hundtƿelftigoða 200. tū hund 300. þrēo hund 1000. þūsend

  • Hē rīcsode seofon mōnþas - he ruled seven months. (hē rīcsode 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 mōnþas)
  • hē rīcsode seofon and þrītig ƿintra - he ruled thirty-seven years (ƿintra in genitive plural).

Parts, Counting, and Estimation[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • a certain, some - sum (noun) - sum mann - a certain man
  • one of - sum + genitive - ic ƿæs þāra manna sum - I was one of the men
  • some of - sum + pronoun/article - mid sumum þǣm fultume - with some of the help; sume hīe - some of them
  • negative - ƿiþsacendlic
  • about, approximately - nēan, fōrnēan (not "ymb")

Note that ordinal numbers ("first, second, third, etc.") are expressed by adding "-þa" (with the weak adjectival declension) to most numbers (note that the "þ" assimilates with other dental consonants)

However, note:

  • First - forma wk
  • Second - ōðer st
  • Ninth - nigoða wk
  • Tenth - tēoða wk

Words for animal articles[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • Þæt Gebǣre - behavior
  • Geþoftung - reproduction (from the verb geþoftian)
  • Sēo Feðer - feather (pl: feðera)
  • Þæt fiðere - wing (pl: fiðeru)

Useful affixes[adiht | adiht fruman]

Prefixes[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • Æt- = at, to, from
  • Be-, bi- = around, surrounding, turns non-transitive to transitive
  • Eft- = back, again
  • For-, fōr- = intensification, opposition [sometimes shortening of "fore-, fōre-"]
  • Fore-, fōre- = before of time/place
  • Ge- = no meaning, togetherness, collectivity, verbal perfective meaning
  • Tō- = division, separation

Suffixes[adiht | adiht fruman]

  • -el, -ol sm - nominal personal or inanimate
  • -hād sm = nominal abstract, especially denoting the being of something or a stage of life [like ME "child-hood", "knight-hood"]
  • -hǣƿen = adjectival "-coloured, -hued"
  • -incel sn = nominal diminutive
  • -ing sm = nominal "son of", perhaps useful to show that on thing is product of another; alternate spelling of "-ung"
  • -isc - adjectival "-ish"
  • -ness sf = nominal abstract (like MnE "-ness")
  • -ung sf = nominal making noun of verbs especially